52. Jahrgang Nr. 5 / November 2022
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Ausgabe Nr. 10 Monat Dezember 2004
Yo soy mi celda...


Ausgabe Nr. 9 Monat November 2004
Widerstand? - Fehl(er)anzeige!


Ausgabe Nr. 11 Monat Dezember 2004
Notstand: einbetoniert ... oder doch: Extra Ecclesiam salus est?


Ausgabe Nr. 1 Monat Januar 2005
Misericordias Domini in aeternum cantabo - Autobiographie von Mgr. Pierre Martin Ngô-dinh-Thuc, Erzbischof von Hué, übersetzt von Elisabeth Meurer


Ausgabe Nr. 1 Monat Januar 2005
DECLARATIO


Ausgabe Nr. 1 Monat Januar 2005
Bischofsweihen


Ausgabe Nr. 1 Monat Januar 2005
Fortsetzung


Ausgabe Nr. 1 Monat Januar 2005
Fortsetzung II


Ausgabe Nr. 1 Monat Januar 2005
Fortsetzung III


Ausgabe Nr. 4 Monat April 2004
Krönungseid des Papstes


Ausgabe Nr. 5 Monat Juni 2004
Franz Nomista: Stellungnahme zur Frage: Welches ist die zentrale Häresie der sog. 'Konzils-Kirche?


Ausgabe Nr. 5 Monat Juni 2004
Papst Pius IX.: Syllabus


Ausgabe Nr. 6 Monat Juli 2004
Magdalena S. Gmehling: Die Propheten laufen nie mit der Mehrheit. Zum 70. Todestag des christlichen Publizisten und Märtyrers Fritz Michael Gerlich


Ausgabe Nr. 4 Monat Juni 2005
Habemus Papam?


Ausgabe Nr. 4 Monat Juni 2005
Anhang: Ratzingers Stellungnahme zu verschiedenen Themen


Ausgabe Nr. 4 Monat Juni 2005
Die Krise des Glaubens und der Verfall der röm.-kath. Kirche


Ausgabe Nr. 4 Monat Juni 2005
Eine kritische Analyse von Ratzingers Dominus Jesus


Ausgabe Nr. 3 Monat April 2004
Reflections on 'The Passion of the Christ'


Ausgabe Nr. 3 Monat April 2004
L’ERREUR FONDAMENTALE DE VATICAN II


Ausgabe Nr. 3 Monat April 2004
CONSOLACIONES PARA LOS FIELES


Ausgabe Nr. 3 Monat April 2004
Some Remarks concerning the Consecrations by Mgr. Ngô-dinh-Thuc and Mgr. Carmona


Ausgabe Nr. 8 Monat Oktober 2004
Cual es la herejsia central de asi llamada


Ausgabe Nr. 8 Monat Oktober 2004
Open Letter to most Reverend Bishop M. Pivarunas


Ausgabe Nr. 8 Monat Oktober 2004
Paganisation of the Liturgy in India


Ausgabe Nr. 8 Monat Oktober 2004
Clothes Make the Person


Ausgabe Nr. 8 Monat Oktober 2004
La posizione teologica dell'Unione Sacerdotale Trento (nel Messico)


Ausgabe Nr. 10 Monat Dezember 2004
EL ERROR PRINCIPAL DEL VATICANO II


Ausgabe Nr. 10 Monat Dezember 2004
La libertad religiosa, error del Vaticano II


Ausgabe Nr. 10 Monat Dezember 2004
EL HABITO HACE AL MONJE


Ausgabe Nr. 6 Monat Oktober 2005
Zur aktuellen Situation


Ausgabe Nr. 6 Monat Oktober 2005
Zur theologischen Position von Kardinal Ratzinger


Ausgabe Nr. 6 Monat Oktober 2005
Vom Elend der Postmoderne


Ausgabe Nr. 7 Monat Dezember 2005
Unfreundliche Betrachtungen


Ausgabe Nr. 11 Monat december 2005
HABEMUS PAPAM?


Ausgabe Nr. 11 Monat december 2005
The Holy Trinity


Ausgabe Nr. 11 Monat december 2005
La libertad religiosa, error del Vaticano II


Ausgabe Nr. 11 Monat december 2005
Sobre la situacin actual de la Iglesia


Ausgabe Nr. 11 Monat december 2005
A propos de la situation actuelle de lEglise


Ausgabe Nr. 11 Monat december 2005
A commentary on the present situation of the Church


Ausgabe Nr. 11 Monat december 2005
A Word from the Editor


Ausgabe Nr. 1 Monat Februar 2006
Auch eine Unverzeihliche - Hinweis auf Cristina Campo


Ausgabe Nr. 1 Monat Februar 2006
Brief an die Redaktion


Ausgabe Nr. 11 Monat Februar 2006
Autobiografa de Monseor P. M. Ng-dinh-Thuc - Prologo


Ausgabe Nr. 11 Monat Februar 2006
Autobiografia I


Ausgabe Nr. 11 Monat Februar 2006
Autobiografia II


Ausgabe Nr. 11 Monat Februar 2006
Autobiografia III


Ausgabe Nr. 11 Monat Februar 2006
Autobiografia IV


Ausgabe Nr. 11 Monat Februar 2006
Apendice I - Autobiografia breve


Ausgabe Nr. 11 Monat Februar 2006
Apendice II - Documentos


Ausgabe Nr. 1 Monat April 1971
Einige przise Fragen an Herrn Professor Schmaus


Ausgabe Nr. 1 Monat April 1971
Im Verborgenen


Ausgabe Nr. 2 Monat Mai 1971
WAHNSINN


Ausgabe Nr. 1 Monat Februar 2003
DAS ATHANASIANISCHE GLAUBENSBEKENNTNIS


Ausgabe Nr. 1 Monat Februar 2003
Richtlinien fr eine Papstwahl


Ausgabe Nr. 2 Monat Mrz 2003
Orthodoxie und europische Identitt


Ausgabe Nr. 3 Monat April 2003
ber das Papsttum der Rmischen Bischfe


Ausgabe Nr. 3 Monat April 2003
Die Bulle Cum ex apostolatus officio


Ausgabe Nr. 4 Monat April 2003
Surrexit Christus, spes mea


Ausgabe Nr. 4 Monat April 2003
The Roman Catholic Diaspora Church


Ausgabe Nr. 4 Monat April 2003
La silla apostlica ocupada


Ausgabe Nr. 4 Monat April 2003
Where do we stand?


Ausgabe Nr. 5 Monat Juni 2003
ber das Papsttum der Rmischen Bischfe


Ausgabe Nr. 6 Monat Juli 2003
Zur derzeitigen Situation der Kirche


Ausgabe Nr. 7 Monat September 2003
Auf der Suche nach dem Hauptirrtum des II. Vatikanums


Ausgabe Nr. 7 Monat September 2003
Ein Mnch, der ein Buch geworden ist


Ausgabe Nr. 8 Monat October 2003
Consoling meditations for the faithful


Ausgabe Nr. 8 Monat October 2003
LEglise Catholique-Romaine de la diaspora


Ausgabe Nr. 8 Monat October 2003
Sobre la situacin actual de la Iglesia (esp.)


Ausgabe Nr. 8 Monat October 2003
A propos de la situation actuelle de lEglise (fr.)


Ausgabe Nr. 8 Monat October 2003
A commentary on the present situation of the Church (engl.)


Ausgabe Nr. 11 Monat December 2003
MORTALIUM ANIMOS


Ausgabe Nr. 11 Monat December 2003
The Apostolic See Occupied


Ausgabe Nr. 11 Monat December 2003
Ou en sommes-nous?


Ausgabe Nr. 11 Monat December 2003
Dalla Lotta delle civilt alla Lotta delle idee


Ausgabe Nr. 11 Monat December 2003
Yo soy mi celda...


Ausgabe Nr. 3 Monat Juni 1971
BRAND IM BASAR


Ausgabe Nr. 3 Monat Juni 1971
Zur Frage der Gltigkeit der heiligen Messe


Ausgabe Nr. 3 Monat Juni 1971
BRIEF DER REDAKTION


Ausgabe Nr. 1 Monat Mrz 2002
Zur Diskussion ber die Des-Laurierssche These


Ausgabe Nr. 2 Monat Mars 2002
Le Seigneur est ressuscit et il est apparu Simon (fr/eng/spa)


Ausgabe Nr. 2 Monat Mars 2002
Alla ricerca dellunit perduta


Ausgabe Nr. 2 Monat Mars 2002
In Search of lost unity (engl/spa)


Ausgabe Nr. 2 Monat Mars 2002
CARTA PASTORAL SOBRE LA FAMILIA


Ausgabe Nr. 2 Monat Mars 2002
Yo soy mi celda...


Ausgabe Nr. 2 Monat Mars 2002
SOBRE EL PROBLEMA DE UNA POSIBLE ELECCION PAPAL


Ausgabe Nr. 4 Monat Juli 1971
WIDERSPRUCH


Ausgabe Nr. 4 Monat Juli 1971
DER KRNUNGSEID DES PAPSTES


Ausgabe Nr. 4 Monat Juli 2002
William Shakespeare


Ausgabe Nr. 5 Monat September 2002
DIE ROLLE DES FORTSCHRITTS IM KATASTROPHALEN NIEDERGANG


Ausgabe Nr. 5 Monat September 2002
Der Apostolische Stuhl


Ausgabe Nr. 5 Monat September 2002
NACHRICHTEN, NACHRICHTEN, NACHRICHTEN


Ausgabe Nr. 6 Monat November 2002
Pfarrer Carl Sonnenschein


Ausgabe Nr. 8 Monat December 2002
Concerning the problem of the


Ausgabe Nr. 8 Monat December 2002
Autobiografia de su Em. Mons. Pierre Martin Ng-dinh-Thuc


Ausgabe Nr. 8 Monat December 2002
Is Mgr. Lefebvre a validly consecrated bishop?


Ausgabe Nr. 8 Monat December 2002
Le Sige apostolique < occup >


Ausgabe Nr. 8 Monat December 2002
La sede apostolica


Ausgabe Nr. 8 Monat December 2002
A Word from the Editor (engl./espan./fr.)


Ausgabe Nr. 5 Monat August 1971
Ehre dem Menschen


Ausgabe Nr. 5 Monat August 1971
GALILEO GALILEI


Ausgabe Nr. 6 Monat September 1971
DIE WISSENSCHAFT MONTINIS


Ausgabe Nr. 7 Monat Diciembre 2001
Jesus Lord at thy birth/Nacimiento (Eng/Esp)


Ausgabe Nr. 7 Monat Diciembre 2001
LA IGLESIA CATOLICO-ROMANA EN LA DIASPORA


Ausgabe Nr. 7 Monat Diciembre 2001
Dominus Jesus


Ausgabe Nr. 7 Monat Diciembre 2001
ESSERE CRISTIANI SENZA CHIESA ?


Ausgabe Nr. 7 Monat Diciembre 2001
A la recherche de l'unit perdue


Ausgabe Nr. 7 Monat Diciembre 2001
COMMUNICATION DE LA REDACTION (fr./engl/espa/ital)


Ausgabe Nr. 2 Monat Juni 2001
Auf der Suche nach der verlorenen Einheit


Ausgabe Nr. 2 Monat Juni 2001
Offener Brief an H.H. P. Perez


Ausgabe Nr. 2 Monat Juni 2001
Und das Wort ist Fleisch geworden


Ausgabe Nr. 3 Monat Juli 2001
Zur UNICEF


Ausgabe Nr. 4 Monat September 2001
Bulle Cum ex Apostolatus officio


Ausgabe Nr. 4 Monat September 2001
Anmerkungen zum Briefwechsel mit H.H. Pater Perez


Ausgabe Nr. 4 Monat September 2001
NACHRICHTEN, NACHRICHTEN, NACHRICHTEN


Ausgabe Nr. 8 Monat Januar 2002
Die Synode von Pistoja


Ausgabe Nr. 1 Monat April 2000
ber die Familie


Ausgabe Nr. 1 Monat April 2000
Kurze Antwort auf eine Anfrage zum Sedisvakanzproblem


Ausgabe Nr. 2 Monat Juni 2000
... und ich pldiere fr die schwarzen Kutten


Ausgabe Nr. 2 Monat Juni 2000
DONDE ESTAMOS?


Ausgabe Nr. 3 Monat August 2000
SER CRISTIANO SIN IGLESIA? - UNA PONENCIA-


Ausgabe Nr. 4 Monat Nov.-Doppel-Nr.4/5 2000
DIE RMISCH-KATHOLISCHE DIASPORA-KIRCHE


Ausgabe Nr. 4 Monat Nov.-Doppel-Nr.4/5 2000
Econe ante portas - notwendige Klarstellungen


Ausgabe Nr. 4 Monat Nov.-Doppel-Nr.4/5 2000
IN MEMORIAM H.H. PFR. MOLITOR


Ausgabe Nr. 4 Monat Nov.-Doppel-Nr.4/5 2000
VIVA CRISTO REY! -ESTACIONES DE UN VIAJE POR MJICO-


Ausgabe Nr. 4 Monat Nov.-Doppel-Nr.4/5 2000
ESSERE CRISTIANI SENZA CHIESA ?


Ausgabe Nr. 6 Monat Dezember 2000
Unser Heiland und Knig ist geboren! (dt/engl)


Ausgabe Nr. 7 Monat Mrz 2001
Dominus Iesus


Ausgabe Nr. 7 Monat Mrz 2001
Lettera a cristiani preoccupati (ital)


Ausgabe Nr. 7 Monat Mrz 2001
NACHRICHTEN, NACHRICHTEN, NACHRICHTEN


Ausgabe Nr. 7 Monat Oktober 1971
DIE SCHWCHE DES KARDINAL ANTONIO BACCI


Ausgabe Nr. 7 Monat Oktober 1971
ZUM BRIEF EINES PFARRERS


Ausgabe Nr. 1 Monat April 1999
NACHRICHTEN, NACHRICHTEN, NACHRICHTEN


Ausgabe Nr. 4 Monat Oktober 1999
DER GROSSE VERRAT AM PAPSTTUM


Ausgabe Nr. 6 Monat Februar 2000
In memoriam H.H. Pfr. i.R. Werner Graus


Ausgabe Nr. 8 Monat November 1971
ZUM BRIEF EINES LESERS


Ausgabe Nr. 9 Monat Dezember 1971
EIN AUFSCHLUSSREICHER HIRTENBRIEF


Ausgabe Nr. 9 Monat Dezember 1971
TUET BUSSE!


Ausgabe Nr. 10 Monat Januar 1972
DAS LETZTE EVANGELIUM


Ausgabe Nr. 11 Monat Februar 1972
EIN IRRLEHRER: G.A. RONCALLI - JOHANNES XXIII.


Ausgabe Nr. 12 Monat Mrz 1972
LAIEN HELFEN DER KIRCHE


Ausgabe Nr. 12 Monat Mrz 1972
QUELLEN DER GLAUBENSLEHRE


Ausgabe Nr. 3 Monat August 1998
DER HL. DON BOSCO


Ausgabe Nr. 11 Monat April-Sondernummer 1998
DECLARATIO


Ausgabe Nr. 11 Monat April-Sondernummer 1998
ERKLRUNG S.E. Mgr. Pierre Martin Ng-dinh-Thuc


Ausgabe Nr. 11 Monat April-Sondernummer 1998
CURRICULUM VITAE DE MGR. PIERRE MARTIN NG-DINH-THUC


Ausgabe Nr. 1 Monat April 1997
WEIHEURKUNDE VON HERFORD


Ausgabe Nr. 3 Monat April 2006
Der Protestantismus und seine kumenische Aufwertung


Ausgabe Nr. 3 Monat Juli 1997
SIND DIE POST-KONZILIAREN WEIHERITEN GLTIG?


Ausgabe Nr. 3 Monat Juli 1997
SIND DIE POST-KONZILIAREN WEIHERITEN GLTIG?- Fortsetzung


Ausgabe Nr. 4 Monat Oktober 1997
DAS UTRECHTER SCHISMA UND DER ALTKATHOLIZISMUS


Ausgabe Nr. 5 Monat Dezember 1997
DIE RESTITUTION DER KIRCHE ALS RECHTSGEMEINSCHAFT, Anmerkungen


Ausgabe Nr. 6 Monat Februar 1998
Man mu die Herzen fr Christus erweitern


Ausgabe Nr. 2 Monat Juli 1993
EIN FREIMAURER ALS BOTSCHAFTER BEIM 'VATIKAN'


Ausgabe Nr. 2 Monat Juli 1993
EIN NEUES KLOSTER IN FRANKREICH


Ausgabe Nr. 1 Monat Mai 1996
EIN SOLCHER RELIGIONSUNTERRICHT VERDIENT NICHT SEINEN NAMEN


Ausgabe Nr. 1 Monat Mai 1996
NACHRICHTEN, NACHRICHTEN, NACHRICHTEN


Ausgabe Nr. 2 Monat Juli 1996
Buchbesprechung: Die Unterminierung der (katholischen) Kirche


Ausgabe Nr. 4 Monat November 1996
VERSINKT DER KATHOLISCHE WIDERSTAND IM SEKTIERERTUM?


Ausgabe Nr. 4 Monat November 1996
VERSINKT DER KATHOLISCHE WIDERSTAND... (Anmerkungen)


Ausgabe Nr. 5 Monat Dezember 1996
Gedanken ber Formen heidnischer Antizipationen der Jungfrauengeburt


Ausgabe Nr. 1 Monat Mai 1995
IN MEMORIAM...


Ausgabe Nr. 1 Monat Mai 1994
WARNING REGARDING A SUPPOSED BISHOP


Ausgabe Nr. 13 Monat June 2011
La Santisima Trinidad


Ausgabe Nr. 2 Monat Juli 1994
Sukzessionsliste von Jean Laborie


Ausgabe Nr. 2 Monat Juli 1994
BOOK REVIEW


Ausgabe Nr. 4 Monat Dezember 1994
In memoriam


Ausgabe Nr. 1 Monat April 1992
DIE RMISCH-KATHOLISCHE DIASPORA-KIRCHE - FIKTION ODER WIRKLICHKEIT? -


Ausgabe Nr. 2 Monat Mai 1992
DIE RMISCH-KATHOLISCHE DIASPORA-KIRCHE - FIKTION ODER WIRKLICHKEIT? -


Ausgabe Nr. 2 Monat Mai 1992
ARCHBISHOP NGO-DINH-THUC MARTYR FOR THE FAITH


Ausgabe Nr. 5 Monat Dezember 1992
Zum Problem der gegenwrtigen Vakanz des rmischen Stuhles


Ausgabe Nr. 12 Monat Januar, Sondernr. 1993
ENTHLLUNG DES SYSTEMS DER WELTBRGER-REPUBLIK


Ausgabe Nr. 6 Monat Februar-Mrz 1993
ENTHLLUNG DES SYSTEMS DER WELTBRGER-REPUBLIK


Ausgabe Nr. 6 Monat Februar-Mrz 1993
Zum Problem der gegenwrtigen Vakanz des rmischen Stuhles


Ausgabe Nr. 1 Monat Mai 1991
EINE ZEITUNG STELLT SICH VOR: FRAKTUR


Ausgabe Nr. 2 Monat Juli 1991
ZUR AKTUELLEN SITUATION DER KIRCHE


Ausgabe Nr. 2 Monat Juli 1991
ZUR ERNCHTERUNG DER GEMTER


Ausgabe Nr. 4 Monat Dezember 1991
AUFRUF AN ALLE KATHOLISCHEN CHRISTEN


Ausgabe Nr. 5 Monat Februar 1992
D E C L A R A T I O


Ausgabe Nr. 5 Monat Februar 1992
IN MEMORIAM S.E. MGR. MOISS CARMONA RIVERA


Ausgabe Nr. 5 Monat Februar 1992
DER MODERNE HOMINISMUS UND SEINE ABARTIGE RELIGIOSITT


Ausgabe Nr. 1 Monat Mai 1990
DIE ZERSTRUNG DES SAKRAMENTALEN PRIESTERTUMS DURCH DIE RMISCHE KONZILSKIRCHE


Ausgabe Nr. 2 Monat Juli, Sondernr 2/3 1990
2. Die Grndung der Kirche als eines heiligen Reiches 'in dieser Welt'


Ausgabe Nr. 4 Monat Oktober 1990
ANMERKUNGEN ZUR THEOLOGIE VON H.H. P. GROSS


Ausgabe Nr. 4 Monat Oktober 1990
DER KAMPF GEGEN DIE HEILIGE MESSE


Ausgabe Nr. 5 Monat Dezember 1990
DIE BULLE CUM EX APOSTOLATUS OFFICIO VON PAPST PAUL IV.


Ausgabe Nr. 5 Monat Dezember 1990
ZWISCHEN ZWEI STHLEN


Ausgabe Nr. 6 Monat Mrz 1991
DER HL. LAURENTIUS VON BRINDISI


Ausgabe Nr. 7 Monat April-Sondernr 1991
DIE ZERSTRUNG DES SAKRAMENTALEN PRIESTERTUMS DURCH DIE RMISCHE KONZILSKIRCHE


Ausgabe Nr. 7 Monat April-Sondernr 1991
KAPITEL III: DIE AKTUELLE VERWIRKLICHUNG


Ausgabe Nr. 7 Monat April-Sondernr 1991
KAPITEL IV: DIE FRAGE NACH DEM SOG. SPENDER


Ausgabe Nr. 7 Monat April-Sondernr 1991
KAPITEL V: DIE STNDIGE ANGLEICHUNG


Ausgabe Nr. 3 Monat September 1989
DIE STELLUNG DER KIRCHE IM POLITISCHEN LEBEN DES RMERREICHES


Ausgabe Nr. 4 Monat November 1989
NEW AGE, Vorwort


Ausgabe Nr. 4 Monat November 1989
NEW AGE, Ausfhrung II


Ausgabe Nr. 5 Monat Dezember 1989
ZUR PROBLEMATIK DER RESTITUTION DER KIRCHLICHEN HIERARCHIE


Ausgabe Nr. 5 Monat Dezember 1989
DIE ENTWICKLUNG DER KIRCHLICHEN VERFASSUNG BIS ZUM 5. JAHRHUNDERT


Ausgabe Nr. 6 Monat Februar 1990
AUF DEM WEG ZUR WELTEINHEITSRELIGION


Ausgabe Nr. 6 Monat Februar 1990
UBI PETRUS - IBI ECCLESIA


Ausgabe Nr. 7 Monat April 1990
ZUR PROBLEMATIK DER RESTITUTION DER KIRCHLICHEN HIERARCHIE


Ausgabe Nr. 7 Monat April 1990
BISCHFLICHE ERKLRUNG


Ausgabe Nr. 6 Monat Januar 1989
DIE KRISE DES GLAUBENS UND DER VERFALL DER RM.-KATH. KIRCHE


Ausgabe Nr. 2 Monat Juli 1988
BRIEF VON S.E. BISCHOF CARMONA AN EINEN MODERNISTISCHEN PRIESTER


Ausgabe Nr. 3 Monat September 1988
DIE ZWIELICHTIGKEIT DER GESTALT JOHANNES XXIII., Fortsetz.


Ausgabe Nr. 4 Monat Oktober 1988
ZUR PERSON VON MGR. MARCEL LEFEBVRE


Ausgabe Nr. 5 Monat Dezember 1988
NACHRICHTEN, NACHRICHTEN, NACHRICHTEN


Ausgabe Nr. 8 Monat Mrz 1989
GEHRTEN RONCALLI UND MONTINI DER LOGE AN?


Ausgabe Nr. 7 Monat April-Sondernr 1988
KIRCHE OHNE RELIGION UND RELIGIONSLOSE KIRCHEN


Ausgabe Nr. 7 Monat April-Sondernr 1988
KIRCHE OHNE RELIGION UND RELIGIONSLOSE KIRCHEN, Fortsetz


Ausgabe Nr. 2 Monat Juli 1987
ber die christliche Taufe und das Tauf-Sakrament


Ausgabe Nr. 2 Monat Juli 1987
STELLUNGNAHME ZU DEM ARTIKEL DIE KRISE DER APOSTOLISCHEN SUKZESSION...


Ausgabe Nr. 2 Monat Juli 1987
KOMMENTAR ZU DEM DOKUMENT 'DIALOG UND MISSION'


Ausgabe Nr. 4 Monat November 1987
DIE PARUSIE, IV. Kap


Ausgabe Nr. 4 Monat November 1987
DIE PARUSIE, V. Kap


Ausgabe Nr. 4 Monat November 1987
DIE PARUSIE, IX. Kap


Ausgabe Nr. 4 Monat November 1987
DIE PARUSIE, X. Kap und Anhang


Ausgabe Nr. 6 Monat Mrz 1988
KIRCHE OHNE RELIGION UND RELIGIONSLOSE KIRCHEN


Ausgabe Nr. 6 Monat Mrz 1988
NEW AGE


Ausgabe Nr. 6 Monat Mrz 1988
WARUM DER STANDPUNKT DER PRIESTERBRUDERSCHAFT ST. PIUS X. VON MGR. LEFEBVRE VERWORFEN WERDEN MUSS


Ausgabe Nr. 1 Monat April 1986
DER WIEDERAUFBAU DER KIRCHLICHEN HIERARCHIE


Ausgabe Nr. 1 Monat April 1986
UNTERWEGS ZUR WELTEINHEITSRELIGION


Ausgabe Nr. 2 Monat Juli 1986
ZUM TODE VON HERRN DR. HUGO MARIA KELLNER


Ausgabe Nr. 3 Monat September 1986
... DEN LEIB DES HERRN NICHT MEHR UNTERSCHEIDEN...


Ausgabe Nr. 4 Monat November 1986
REV.FR. MCKENNA ZUM BISCHOF GEWEIHT


Ausgabe Nr. 5 Monat Januar 1987
ZUM 'MYSTERIUM FIDEI'


Ausgabe Nr. 1 Monat April 1985
WIEDERVEREINIGUNGSVERSUCHE BIS ZUM PONTIFIKAT PIUS XII.


Ausgabe Nr. 3 Monat Juli 1985
SEELSORGE IN MEXIKO


Ausgabe Nr. 4 Monat Oktober 1985
Es WRE ZU BEDENKEN


Ausgabe Nr. 5 Monat Dezember 1985
BRIEF VON HERRN PROF. DR. D. WENDLAND AN DIE REDAKTION


Ausgabe Nr. 6 Monat Februar/Mrz 1986
DER WIEDERAUFBAU DER KIRCHLICHEN HIERARCHIE


Ausgabe Nr. 6 Monat Februar/Mrz 1986
KRNUNGSEID DES PAPSTES


Ausgabe Nr. 6 Monat Februar/Mrz 1986
AN IHREN FRCHTEN WERDET IHR SIE ERKENNEN


Ausgabe Nr. 6 Monat Februar/Mrz 1986
DIE KOMMUNION ALS OPFERMAHL


Ausgabe Nr. 5 Monat Juli 2006
Armenische Passion


Ausgabe Nr. 1 Monat Mai 1984
DIE ZERSTRUNG DER HL, MESSE IM SOG. 'N.O.M.'


Ausgabe Nr. 3 Monat September 2013
Die Irrtmer des II. Vatikanums und ihre berwindung


Ausgabe Nr. 3 Monat August 1984
ZUR BISCHOFSWEIHE VON MGR. GNTHER STORCK


Ausgabe Nr. 3 Monat August 1984
DER GESALBTE ANTICHRIST


Ausgabe Nr. 6 Monat Februar 1985
EINE HRETISCHE 'ERKLRUNG'


Ausgabe Nr. 6 Monat Februar 1985
DIE ZERSTRUNG DER HL. MESSE IM SOG. 'N.O.M.'


Ausgabe Nr. 12 Monat September 2006
The Autobiography of Mgr. Pierre Martin Ng-dinh-Thuc - Misericordias Domini in aeternum cantabo


Ausgabe Nr. 12 Monat September 2006
The Autobiography of Mgr. Ng-dinh-Thuc - Part 2


Ausgabe Nr. 12 Monat September 2006
The Autobiography of Mgr. Ng-dinh-Thuc - Part 3


Ausgabe Nr. 12 Monat September 2006
The Autobiography of Mgr. Ng-dinh-Thuc - Part 4


Ausgabe Nr. 1 Monat Mai 1983
Die Ereignisse der beiden letzten Jahre


Ausgabe Nr. 1 Monat Mai 1983
EIN BRIEF VON BISCHOF MOISES CARMONA


Ausgabe Nr. 2 Monat Juli 1983
DIE MACHT HINTER ECONES THRON


Ausgabe Nr. 3 Monat August 1983
Die Wojtylanische Diktatur


Ausgabe Nr. 3 Monat August 1983
IST MAN SCHISMATIKER, WENN MAN DEN STUHL DES HEILIGEN PETRUS .... FR UNBESETZT ... HLT


Ausgabe Nr. 3 Monat August 1983
NOCH EINMAL: ZUM PROBLEM DES 'UNA CUM' IM 'TE IGITUR' DER HL. MESSE


Ausgabe Nr. 3 Monat August 1983
WIDER DIE PROPHEZEIHUNGEN DES SOG. ROMAN CATHOLIC


Ausgabe Nr. 3 Monat August 1983
BRIEF VON H.H. P. BARBARA AN DIE REDAKTION


Ausgabe Nr. 4 Monat Oktober 1983
Die Wojtylanische Diktatur


Ausgabe Nr. 4 Monat Oktober 1983
HELDEN MIT AUSZEICHNUNG UNERWNSCHT


Ausgabe Nr. 4 Monat Oktober 1983
AUTORITT UND SEDISVAKANZ


Ausgabe Nr. 6 Monat Februar 1984
BERICHT AUS BRSSEL


Ausgabe Nr. 6 Monat Februar 1984
FRONTWECHSEL


Ausgabe Nr. 6 Monat Februar 1984
DIE ZERSTRUNG DER HL. MESSE IM SOG. 'N.O.M.'


Ausgabe Nr. 7 Monat Mrz 1984
Eine Erklrung von Mgr. M.L. Gurard des Lauriers


Ausgabe Nr. 7 Monat Mrz 1984
DIE KIRCHE DER LETZTEN TAGE


Ausgabe Nr. 7 Monat Mrz 1984
REFLEXIONEN UND MOMENTE EINER KRITISCHEN ANALYSE


Ausgabe Nr. 7 Monat Mrz 1984
DIE ZERSTRUNG DER HL. MESSE IM SOG. 'N.O.M.'


Ausgabe Nr. 1 Monat Mai 1982
BRIEF AN S.E. MGR. PIERRE MARTIN NG-DINH-THUC


Ausgabe Nr. 1 Monat Mai 1982
M. LEFEBVRE IN MEXIKO


Ausgabe Nr. 2 Monat August 1982
T E S T I F I C A T I O


Ausgabe Nr. 2 Monat August 1982
BISCHOFSWEIHE S.E. MGR. BENIGNO BRAVO UND MGR. ROBERTO MARTINEZ


Ausgabe Nr. 2 Monat August 1982
ERZBISCHOF PETER MARTIN NGO-DINH-THUC


Ausgabe Nr. 2 Monat August 1982
MGR. LEFEBVRE CONTRA MGR. LEFEBVRE


Ausgabe Nr. 3 Monat Oktober 1982
OFFENER BRIEF AN DIE ... KULTURGEMEINSCHAFT ST. PLUS X. E.V.


Ausgabe Nr. 4 Monat Dezember 1982
EIN BRIEF VON BISCHOF MOISES CARMONA


Ausgabe Nr. 12 Monat Mrz 1982
DECLARATIO


Ausgabe Nr. 12 Monat Mrz 1982
Epistola


Ausgabe Nr. 12 Monat Mrz 1982
Declaration concernant Palmar


Ausgabe Nr. 12 Monat Mrz 1982
BISCHOFSWEIHEN


Ausgabe Nr. 1 Monat Mai 1981
SEQUENZ ZUM HL. FRONLEICHNAMSFEST


Ausgabe Nr. 2 Monat Juli 1981
TRADITIONALISTISCHER PROTESTANTISMUS


Ausgabe Nr. 3 Monat August 1981
BRIEFAUSZUG


Ausgabe Nr. 3 Monat August 1981
ZUM PROBLEM DES UNA CUM


Ausgabe Nr. 3 Monat August 1981
DIE FALSCHE KUMENE DES MODERNISTISCHEN ROM


Ausgabe Nr. 3 Monat August 1981
DER HL. RABANUS MAURUS


Ausgabe Nr. 4 Monat Oktober 1981
ZU EINER VERLAUTBARUNG VON MONSEIGNEUR LEFEBVRE


Ausgabe Nr. 6 Monat Februar 1982
KURZE BESCHREIBUNG DES TRADITIONALISMUS IN MEXIKO


Ausgabe Nr. 6 Monat Februar 1982
PREDIGT VOM 4. OKTOBER 1981


Ausgabe Nr. 6 Monat Februar 1982
STELLUNGNAHME ZU DEM STANDPUNKT VON MGR. MARCEL LEFEBVRE


Ausgabe Nr. 1 Monat Mai 1980
PRZISE ZIELE!


Ausgabe Nr. 1 Monat Mai 1980
NACHRICHTEN, NACHRICHTEN, NACHRICHTEN...


Ausgabe Nr. 1 Monat Mai 1980
SECTE ORTHODOXE?


Ausgabe Nr. 2 Monat Juni 1980
DER GREUEL DER VERWSTUNG


Ausgabe Nr. 2 Monat Juni 1980
QU'EST-CE DIRE: LA NOUVELLE MESSE PEUT TRE VALIDE ?


Ausgabe Nr. 2 Monat Juni 1980
LETTRES


Ausgabe Nr. 2 Monat Juni 1980
CAHIERS de CASSICIACUM


Ausgabe Nr. 3 Monat September 1980
CHRISTUS NOVUM INSTITUIT PASCHA...


Ausgabe Nr. 3 Monat September 1980
ANTWORT VON H.H. PFARRER HANS MILCH


Ausgabe Nr. 3 Monat September 1980
RALLIONS-NOUS : L'EXEMPLE VIENT D'EN-HAUT


Ausgabe Nr. 4 Monat Oktober 1980
DIE KATZE LSST DAS MAUSEN NICHT.


Ausgabe Nr. 4 Monat Oktober 1980
RCKGABE VON MENSCH UND WELT


Ausgabe Nr. 4 Monat Oktober 1980
CHRISTUS NOVUM INSTITUIT PASCHA...


Ausgabe Nr. 4 Monat Oktober 1980
CHRISTUS NOVUM INSTITUIT PASCHA... Fortsetzung


Ausgabe Nr. 4 Monat Oktober 1980
REPONSE DE HR L'ABBE HANS MILCH AUX QUESTIONS


Ausgabe Nr. 5 Monat Dezember 1980
KOEXISTENZ DER VOR- UND NACHKONZILIAREN RITEN?


Ausgabe Nr. 5 Monat Dezember 1980
RIEN QUE L'ANCIENNE MESSE -THE OLD MASS ONLY fr/eng


Ausgabe Nr. 6 Monat Februar 1981
DER NOVUS ORDO MISSAE: EINE GEGEN-MESSE


Ausgabe Nr. 6 Monat Februar 1981
QUE SIGNIFIE LA COEXISTENCE DES RITES PRE- ET POSTCONCILIAIRES


Ausgabe Nr. 7 Monat April 1981
Protestation de Foi Catholique - franz/deutsch


Ausgabe Nr. 7 Monat April 1981
A CO-EXISTANCE OF THE PRE- AND POSTCONCILIAR RITES


Ausgabe Nr. 7 Monat Dezember 2006
Przise Ziele!


Ausgabe Nr. 1 Monat Mai 1979
MGR. LEFEBVRES BRIEF AN MGR. WOJTYLA MIT EINER STELLUNGNAHME DES H.H. GURARD DES LAURIERS


Ausgabe Nr. 2 Monat Juli 1979
BRIEF AN MGR. LEFEBVRE


Ausgabe Nr. 2 Monat Juli 1979
BRIEF DES PRSIDENTEN DER ASSOCIATION ST. PIE V AN MGR. LEFEBVRE


Ausgabe Nr. 4 Monat Oktober 1979
NOCH EINMAL: PRZISE FRAGEN AN ECONE


Ausgabe Nr. 5 Monat Dezember 1979
LETTRE OUVERTE SON EXCELLENCE MGR. MARCEL LEFBVRE


Ausgabe Nr. 5 Monat Dezember 1979
Enzyklika Casti connubii


Ausgabe Nr. 5 Monat Dezember 1979
OFFENER BRIEF AN HERRN PROF.DR. HEINZ KREMERS


Ausgabe Nr. 5 Monat Dezember 1979
WIR STOLZE MENSCHENKINDER ...


Ausgabe Nr. 6 Monat Februar 1980
BRIEF VON PATER DES LAURIERS AN DIE REDAKTION


Ausgabe Nr. 6 Monat Februar 1980
WIEDER EINMAL DER 'NOM'


Ausgabe Nr. 6 Monat Februar 1980
OFFENER BRIEF AN S. EXCELLENZ MGR. MARCEL LEFBVRE


Ausgabe Nr. 7 Monat April 1980
KATECHISMUS DER KATHOLISCHEN RELIGION


Ausgabe Nr. 7 Monat April 1980
POUR VOUS ET POUR TOUS - LE PROGRAMME DE JEAN-PAUL II


Ausgabe Nr. 1 Monat Juni 1978
Konzil von Trient: Dekret ber das Sakrament der Eucharistie - ERLSUNG


Ausgabe Nr. 1 Monat Juni 1978
CONTRA MURMURANTES


Ausgabe Nr. 2 Monat Juli 1978
EIN INTERESSANTES DOKUMENT


Ausgabe Nr. 2 Monat Juli 1978
GEDANKEN ZUM HEUTIGEN PRIESTERMANGEL


Ausgabe Nr. 3 Monat Oktober 1978
RGERNIS VOR GOTT UND DEN MENSCHEN


Ausgabe Nr. 4 Monat November 1978
RECHTGLUBIGE SEKTE ?


Ausgabe Nr. 4 Monat November 1978
DIE KIRCHE ALS DIE WAHRE INSTITUTION DES HEILS


Ausgabe Nr. 5 Monat Dezember 1978
DER STUHL PETRI IST WEITERHIN VAKANT


Ausgabe Nr. 5 Monat Dezember 1978
SIE LGEN, PATER WERENFRIED


Ausgabe Nr. 5 Monat Dezember 1978
BRIEF VON KARDINAL BOURNE AUS DEM JAHRE 1928


Ausgabe Nr. 7 Monat April 1979
DIE HL. MESSE IST KEINE BLOSSE DISZIPLINARSACHE!


Ausgabe Nr. 7 Monat April 1979
VERE ANTIQUI ERRORIS NOVI REPARATORES!


Ausgabe Nr. 7 Monat April 1979
HRESIE VOR DEM AMTSANTRITT


Ausgabe Nr. 1 Monat Mai 1977
SIND WIR VORBEREITET ?


Ausgabe Nr. 2 Monat Juli 1977
DIE LITURGISCHE SPRACHE


Ausgabe Nr. 3 Monat September 1977
Konzil von Trient: Dekret ber das Meopfer


Ausgabe Nr. 4 Monat November 1977
DIE DOGMATISCHEN BESTIMMUNGEN DES TRIDENTINUMS ZUR PRIESTERWEIHE


Ausgabe Nr. 5 Monat Dezember 1977
FRIEDRICH NIETZSCHE VOR HUNDERT JAHREN


Ausgabe Nr. 6 Monat Februar 1978
DIE ABSICHTEN UND DAS ZIEL DES BENEDIKTINERS ODO CASEL


Ausgabe Nr. 6 Monat Februar 1978
GEGENWART DER KIRCHE IN DER WELT


Ausgabe Nr. 7 Monat April 1978
DIE LITRUGISCHE SPRACHE


Ausgabe Nr. 11 Monat Februar 2007
EN LA ENCRUCIJADA


Ausgabe Nr. 11 Monat Februar 2007
la croise des chemins


Ausgabe Nr. 11 Monat Februar 2007
At the crossroads


Ausgabe Nr. 11 Monat Februar 2007
Y seris como Dios (Gn. 3, 5)


Ausgabe Nr. 11 Monat Februar 2007
And thou wilt be like God (Gen. 3,5)


Ausgabe Nr. 1 Monat Mai 1976
LITERATURHINWEIS


Ausgabe Nr. 2 Monat Juli 1976
DIE FEIER DER KINDERTAUFE


Ausgabe Nr. 2 Monat Juli 1976
DER KRNUNGSEID DES PAPSTES


Ausgabe Nr. 2 Monat Juli 1976
AKTIVE TEILNAHME


Ausgabe Nr. 3 Monat September 1976
NEUERE BEITRGE ZUM GESCHEHEN UM ECONE


Ausgabe Nr. 4 Monat Oktober 1976
STELLUNGNAHME ZUM INTERVIEW KARL RAHNERS


Ausgabe Nr. 4 Monat Oktober 1976
MEIN VOLK, GEDENKE DOCH! (Mich. 6,5)


Ausgabe Nr. 5 Monat Dezember 1976
DIE LETZTE LUNG


Ausgabe Nr. 6 Monat Februar 1977
AKTIVE TEILNAHME


Ausgabe Nr. 7 Monat April 1977
AKTIVE TEILNAHME


Ausgabe Nr. 12 Monat Februar 2007
MISERICORDIAS DOMINI IN AETERNUM CANTABO, 1er continuation


Ausgabe Nr. 12 Monat Februar 2007
MISERICORDIAS DOMINI IN AETERNUM CANTABO, 4. continuation


Ausgabe Nr. 12 Monat Februar 2007
MISERICORDIAS DOMINI IN AETERNUM CANTABO, 5. continuation


Ausgabe Nr. 12 Monat Februar 2007
APPENDICE


Ausgabe Nr. 3 Monat August 1975
ADAM, WO BIST DU!


Ausgabe Nr. 3 Monat August 1975
LISTE DER EINWNDE GEGEN DEN NOVUS ORDO MISSAE


Ausgabe Nr. 3 Monat August 1975
BEITRGE ZUM GESCHEHEN UM ECNE


Ausgabe Nr. 1 Monat Mai 1975
Beata nobis gaudia


Ausgabe Nr. 1 Monat Mai 1975
Sie glauben noch an ein Paradies?


Ausgabe Nr. 2 Monat Juni 1975
ADAM, WO BIST DU!


Ausgabe Nr. 4 Monat Oktober 1975
LISTE DER EINWNDE GEGEN DEN NOVUS ORDO MISSAE


Ausgabe Nr. 4 Monat Oktober 1975
DAS NEUE 'MISSALE ROMANUM'


Ausgabe Nr. 4 Monat Oktober 1975
FRAU, SIEHE, DEIN SOHN!


Ausgabe Nr. 4 Monat Oktober 1975
BEITRGE ZUM GESCHEHEN UM ECNE


Ausgabe Nr. 5 Monat Dezember 1975
EIN KIND IST UNS GEBOREN - EIN SOHN IST UNS GESCHENKT


Ausgabe Nr. 5 Monat Dezember 1975
FRAU, SIEHE, DEIN SOHN!


Ausgabe Nr. 5 Monat Dezember 1975
DIE BESTIMMUNGEN DES TRIDENTINUMS ZUR HL. MESSE


Ausgabe Nr. 5 Monat Dezember 1975
LESERBRIEFE IN AUSZGEN


Ausgabe Nr. 6 Monat Februar 1976
EMPFEHLUNGEN, WIE SICH DIE GLUBIGEN IN DER JETZIGEN NOTLAGE DER KIRCHE VERHALTEN SOLLTEN.


Ausgabe Nr. 6 Monat Februar 1976
AKTIVE TEILNAHME


Ausgabe Nr. 1 Monat April 1974
GLTIGE UND WIRKSAME MATERIE


Ausgabe Nr. 2 Monat Mai 1974
GLTIGE UND WIRKSAME MATERIE - II.


Ausgabe Nr. 2 Monat Mai 1974
DIE NEUE RELIGION


Ausgabe Nr. 78 Monat Oktober/Nov. 1974
GLTIGE FORM


Ausgabe Nr. 78 Monat Oktober/Nov. 1974
SIND DIE NEUEN HOCHGEBETE ANNEHMBAR?


Ausgabe Nr. 9 Monat Dezember 1974
CORNELIUS UND CYPRIAN


Ausgabe Nr. 9 Monat Dezember 1974
DER ANFANG DER TUSCHUNG


Ausgabe Nr. 9 Monat Dezember 1974
DER UNSICHTBARE OPFERER-PRIESTER


Ausgabe Nr. 9 Monat Dezember 1974
ANTWORT


Ausgabe Nr. 10 Monat Jan./Februar-dopp. Nr. 1975
DIE GETREUE INTENTION


Ausgabe Nr. 12 Monat Mrz 1975
DIE EHEZWECKE


Ausgabe Nr. 12 Monat Mrz 1975
DIE UNGLTIGKEIT DER NEUEN MESSE VON ANFANG AN, Fortsetzung


Ausgabe Nr. 3 Monat Mai 2007
DIASPORA


Ausgabe Nr. 1 Monat April 1972
WURZEL, STAMM UND KRONE


Ausgabe Nr. 2 Monat Mai 1972
HRESIE VOR DEM AMTSANTRITT


Ausgabe Nr. 2 Monat Mai 1972
DIE LEONINISCHEN GEBETE


Ausgabe Nr. 2 Monat Mai 1972
Wurzel, Stamm und Krone


Ausgabe Nr. 8 Monat November 1972
Kurze Zusammenfassung der Argumente fr das 'fr viele'


Ausgabe Nr. 8 Monat November 1972
Wurzel, Stamm und Krone


Ausgabe Nr. 9 Monat Dezember 1972
Die Messe des hl. Pius V. ist immer noch erlaubt


Ausgabe Nr. 10 Monat Januar 1973
Offener Brief an die guten Priester


Ausgabe Nr. 11 Monat Februar 1973
DIE HOCHZEIT ZU KANA


Ausgabe Nr. 8 Monat November 1973
Wurzel, Stamm und Krone


Ausgabe Nr. 8 Monat November 1973
BRIEF DER REDAKTION


Ausgabe Nr. 9 Monat Dezember 1973
Das Geburtsjahr Christi und die Schtzung des Quirinus


Ausgabe Nr. 10 Monat Januar 1974
Die gltige Materie, das Offertorium, Ich


Ausgabe Nr. 11 Monat Februar 1974
Zum Tode von Bischof Blasius Sigebald Kurz OFM


Ausgabe Nr. 12 Monat Mrz 1974
Papa haereticus


Ausgabe Nr. 12 Monat Mrz 1974
Wollt auch ihr weggehen?


Ausgabe Nr. 1 Monat April 1973
DER VERLORENE SOHN


Ausgabe Nr. 2 Monat Mai 1973
Tuet Bue!


Ausgabe Nr. 3 Monat Juni 1973
DER HL. BONIFATIUS - ZUM FEST AM 5. JUNI


Ausgabe Nr. 3 Monat Juni 1973
VERNDERUNGEN IM MISSALE


Ausgabe Nr. 45 Monat Juli/August 1973
THEOLOGISCHE UND JURISTISCHE BEDEUTUNG DER BULLE QUO PRIMUM


Ausgabe Nr. 45 Monat Juli/August 1973
Wurzel, Stamm und Krone


Ausgabe Nr. 6 Monat September 1973
VORLUFER, NACHLUFER, MITLUFER


Ausgabe Nr. 6 Monat September 1973
VOLKSSPRACHE IN DER LITURGIE?


Ausgabe Nr. 6 Monat September 1973
Gehorcht!


Ausgabe Nr. 7 Monat Oktober 1973
Darf ein Papst den Ritus ndern?


Ausgabe Nr. 7 Monat Oktober 1973
Die heilige Messe


Ausgabe Nr. 4 Monat August 2007
Enzyklika Casti connubii - Anmerkungen


Ausgabe Nr. 13 Monat September 2007
Carta a Su Eminencia el obispo XXX


Ausgabe Nr. 13 Monat September 2007
Letter to His Excellency xxxx


Ausgabe Nr. 13 Monat September 2007
LA SANTISIMA TRINIDAD


Ausgabe Nr. 13 Monat September 2007
Et vous serez comme Dieu


Ausgabe Nr. 13 Monat September 2007
Declaratio


Ausgabe Nr. 13 Monat September 2007
Declaracin


Ausgabe Nr. 13 Monat September 2007
Declaration


Ausgabe Nr. 13 Monat September 2007
Dichiarazione


Ausgabe Nr. 5 Monat Oktober 2007
Das freimaurerische Prinzip


Ausgabe Nr. 5 Monat Oktober 2007
Motu Proprio Summorum Pontificum von Benedikt XVI.vom 7. Juli 2007


Ausgabe Nr. 5 Monat Oktober 2007
Die Falle der Motu-Proprio-Messe


Ausgabe Nr. 12 Monat Fvrier 1982
COEXISTENCE PACIFIQUE?


Ausgabe Nr. 12 Monat Fvrier 1982
RIEN QUE L'ANCIENNE MESSE - EXEGESE D' UN SLOGAN


Ausgabe Nr. 11 Monat August 1982
THE OLD MASS ONLY


Ausgabe Nr. 11 Monat Mai 1984
CATHOLIC RESISTANCE AGAINST MODERNISM


Ausgabe Nr. 11 Monat Mai 1984
Is Mgr. Lefebvre a validly consecrated bishop?


Ausgabe Nr. 11 Monat Mai 1984
ANOINTED ANTICHRISTS


Ausgabe Nr. 11 Monat Mai 1984
LE TEMPS DE L'APOCALYPSE


Ausgabe Nr. 11 Monat Mai 1984
THE LATTER DAY CHURCH


Ausgabe Nr. 12 Monat August 1984
Paganisation of the Liturgy in India


Ausgabe Nr. 12 Monat August 1984
SERPENTS OINTS PAR LE SAINT ESPRIT


Ausgabe Nr. 12 Monat August 1984
DECLARAT ION OF MGR. M.L. GURARD DES LAURIERS


Ausgabe Nr. 13 Monat Oktobre 1984
SACRE DE M. L'ABBE GNTHER STORCK


Ausgabe Nr. 13 Monat Oktobre 1984
QUE PENSER DE LA MISE AU POINT DE M. ALPHONSE EISELE?


Ausgabe Nr. 13 Monat Oktobre 1984
LIFE IN APOCALYPTICAL TIME


Ausgabe Nr. 13 Monat Oktobre 1984
IMPUDENT!


Ausgabe Nr. 13 Monat Oktobre 1984
L'GLISE DES DERNIERS TEMPS


Ausgabe Nr. 14 Monat Decembre 1984
NAVIDAD! NAVIDAD!


Ausgabe Nr. 14 Monat Decembre 1984
LE CAS DU PAPE HONORIUS (625-638)


Ausgabe Nr. 14 Monat Decembre 1984
LA TETE EST NECESSAIRE


Ausgabe Nr. 14 Monat Decembre 1984
DE ECCLESIAE CAPITE


Ausgabe Nr. 11 Monat May 1980
PEACEFUL CO-EXISTENCE?


Ausgabe Nr. 11 Monat May 1980
ITE, MISSA EST


Ausgabe Nr. 11 Monat May 1980
ONCE MORE: PRECISE QUESTIONS TO ECNE


Ausgabe Nr. 11 Monat May 1980
FOR ALL AND FOR YOU - THE PROGRAMME OF JOHN PAUL II.


Ausgabe Nr. 12 Monat June 1980
A PROCLAMATION ON 'THE NEW MASS AND THE POPE'


Ausgabe Nr. 13 Monat Februar 1981
NOVUS ORDO MISSAE: AN ANTI-MASS. Part 1


Ausgabe Nr. 13 Monat Februar 1981
NOVUS ORDO MISSAE: AN ANTI-MASS, Part 2


Ausgabe Nr. 12 Monat July 1981
VATICANUM 2 NEW RITES - ARE THEY VALID?


Ausgabe Nr. 6 Monat Dezember 2007
Das Motu Proprio nchtern betrachtet


Ausgabe Nr. 13 Monat August 1981
EXTRAIT DE LETTRE


Ausgabe Nr. 13 Monat August 1981
LE CANON 188, N 4 OU: OU EST L'EGLISE


Ausgabe Nr. 13 Monat August 1981
UN COMMUNIQUE DE MONSEIGNEUR LEFBVRE


Ausgabe Nr. 13 Monat August 1981
EXTRAIT DE LA BULLE DE PAUL IV: CUM EX APOSTOLATUS OFFICIO


Ausgabe Nr. 13 Monat August 1981
LETTRE A MSGR. LEFBVRE


Ausgabe Nr. 12 Monat Juni 1985
LES PRISES D'ARNAUD LE DOUANIER


Ausgabe Nr. 12 Monat Juni 1985
A CUSTOMS-OFFICER'S PRIZE


Ausgabe Nr. 12 Monat Juni 1985
L'ANTI-CHRIST ET L'GLISE OFFICIELLE


Ausgabe Nr. 11 Monat April 1985
MONTRE-MOI TES CHEMINS, SEIGNEUR


Ausgabe Nr. 11 Monat April 1985
OUR LADY OF FATIMA AND THE HOLY FATHER


Ausgabe Nr. 11 Monat April 1985
DE APOSTOLICA SEDE


Ausgabe Nr. 11 Monat April 1985
HOW THE ROMAN CITADEL COLLAPSED


Ausgabe Nr. 14 Monat February 1984
Pastoral-Brief/Epistola pastoralis/LETTRE PASTORALE-dt/lat/fr


Ausgabe Nr. 14 Monat February 1984
CATHOLIQUES CONTRE IMPOSTEURS


Ausgabe Nr. 12 Monat July 1983
Where do we stand?


Ausgabe Nr. 12 Monat July 1983
Ou en sommes-nous?


Ausgabe Nr. 12 Monat July 1983
JUAN PABLO II. NO ES UN PAPA CATOLICO


Ausgabe Nr. 12 Monat July 1983
ROMAN CATHOLIC BISHOPS SPEAK


Ausgabe Nr. 12 Monat July 1983
VATICAN II FACE LA TRADITION


Ausgabe Nr. 12 Monat July 1983
REPONSE DE M. L'ABB MILCH A LA LETTRE OUVERTE DU M. HELLER


Ausgabe Nr. 13 Monat Oktober 1983
FALSE BISHOPS AND TRUE BISHOPS


Ausgabe Nr. 13 Monat Oktober 1983
OFFICIAL PRESS RELEASE


Ausgabe Nr. 13 Monat Oktober 1983
EST-ON SCHISMATIQUE SI ON JUGE QUE LE SIEGE DE SAINT PIERRE EST ACTUELLEMENT OCCUPE


Ausgabe Nr. 13 Monat Oktober 1983
IS ONE A SCHISMATIC, WHEN IN OUR DAYS ONE CONSIDERS THE CHAIR OF ST. PETER AS VACANT


Ausgabe Nr. 11 Monat April 1983
AGAINST THE 'PROPHECY' OF THE SO-CALLED 'ROMAN CATHOLIC'


Ausgabe Nr. 11 Monat April 1983
THE ARIANISM - AN EXAMPLE FOR THE EXISTENCE OF THE CONSENSUS FIDELIUM


Ausgabe Nr. 11 Monat April 1983
CONTRARIES PAR LA CONSECRATION D'VQUES CATHOLIQUES


Ausgabe Nr. 11 Monat April 1983
LETTRE OUVERTE D'AMERIQUE AUX FRERES DANS LA FOI


Ausgabe Nr. 11 Monat April 1983
Concerning the problem of the 'una cum'


Ausgabe Nr. 11 Monat Mai 1981
LE NOVUS ORDO MISSAE: UNE ANTI-MESSE


Ausgabe Nr. 11 Monat Mai 1981
SEULEMENT, QUAND LE FILS DE L'HOMME REVIENDRA TROUVERA-TIL LA FOI SUR LA TERRE?


Ausgabe Nr. 14 Monat Oktober 1981
LETTRE OUVERTE A MGR. MARCEL LEFEBVRE


Ausgabe Nr. 14 Monat Oktober 1981
LA BANDE DES QUATRE


Ausgabe Nr. 2 Monat Juni 1980
Beilage II zu EINSICHT X(2) Juni 1980: Die neue Messe und der Papst


Ausgabe Nr. 11 Monat May 1980
APPEL DU 16.4.1979


Ausgabe Nr. 12 Monat June 1980
Vox FIDEl: LA VOIX DE LA FOl OU L'ORGANE DES SOUHAITS


Ausgabe Nr. 11 Monat February 2008
ARE POST CONCILIAR RITES VALID?


Ausgabe Nr. 11 Monat February 2008
THE NEW RITE OF BAPTISM


Ausgabe Nr. 11 Monat February 2008
THE NEW RITE OF BAPTISM - PART II


Ausgabe Nr. 11 Monat February 2008
LETTER FROM A PRIEST


Ausgabe Nr. 12 Monat Decembre 1982
LETTRE DE L'EVEQUE MEXICAIN MOISES CARMONA


Ausgabe Nr. 12 Monat Decembre 1982
CURRICULUM VITAE OF MGR. LOUIS VEZELIS O.F.M. (engl.)


Ausgabe Nr. 12 Monat Decembre 1982
Some Remarks concerning the Consecrations by Mgr. Ng-dinh-Thuc and Mgr. Carmona


Ausgabe Nr. 12 Monat Decembre 1982
ALGUNAS CONSIDERACIONES SOBRE LAS CONSAGRACIONES EPISCOPALES


Ausgabe Nr. 12 Monat Decembre 1982
STORM CLOUDS OVER THE WHOLE WORLD


Ausgabe Nr. 15 Monat Decembre 1981
BREVE RESEA SOBRE EL TRADICIONALISMO EN MEXICO


Ausgabe Nr. 15 Monat Decembre 1981
POUR VOUS ET POUR TOUS - LE PROGRAMME DE JEAN-PAUL II


Ausgabe Nr. 15 Monat Decembre 1981
SECTE ORTHODOXE ?


Ausgabe Nr. 15 Monat Decembre 1981
HOMELIE DU 4 OCTOBRE 1981


Ausgabe Nr. 11 Monat August 1982
A ROMAN CATHOLIC BISHOP SPEAKS


Ausgabe Nr. 11 Monat August 1982
JURAMENTO DE CONSERVAR Y PRESERVAR LA UNIDAD DE LA IGLESIA


Ausgabe Nr. 11 Monat August 1982
CURRICULUM VITAE DEL R.P. JOSE DE JESUS ROBERTO MARTINEZ Y GUTIERREZ


Ausgabe Nr. 11 Monat August 1982
LE CAS BARBARA


Ausgabe Nr. 11 Monat August 1982
THE CASE BARBARA


Ausgabe Nr. 11 Monat August 1982
ANSWER OF REVEREND FATHER HANS MILCH


Ausgabe Nr. 11 Monat August 1982
ANTICHRIST


Ausgabe Nr. 11 Monat August 1982
THE QUESTION OF THE PAPACY TODAY


Ausgabe Nr. 4 Monat September 2001
Die Bulle >Cum ex apostolatus officio< von Papst Paul IV.


Ausgabe Nr. 12 Monat Mrz 2008
I believe in the holy Catholic Church, the communion of saints


Ausgabe Nr. 12 Monat Mrz 2008
A PAPAL ELECTION UNDER THE PRESENT CIRCUMSTANCES


Ausgabe Nr. 12 Monat Mrz 2008
DECLARATION: On John Paul II's death


Ausgabe Nr. 12 Monat Mrz 2008
Apostasa y Confusin


Ausgabe Nr. 12 Monat Mrz 2008
LA BULA DE PAULO IV


Ausgabe Nr. 3 Monat April 2003
Pauls' IV. Bulle Cum ex apostolatus officio - Appendix


Ausgabe Nr. 13 Monat April 2008
LA VALIDEZ CE LOS RITOS POSTCONCILIARES CUESTIONADA


Ausgabe Nr. 13 Monat April 2008
BIBLIOGRAFIA: VALIDEZ CUESTIONADA DE LOS NUEVOS RITOS POSTCONCILIARES


Ausgabe Nr. 13 Monat April 2008
PASCENDI DOMINICI GREGIS


Ausgabe Nr. 13 Monat April 2008
PASCENDI DOMINICI GREGIS - CONTIN. 1


Ausgabe Nr. 13 Monat April 2008
PASCENDI DOMINICI GREGIS - CONTIN. 2


Ausgabe Nr. 13 Monat April 2008
ENSEIGNEMENT DE PIE XII POUR DFENDRE LES CRITURES


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PROCLAMATION CONCILIAIRE CONCERNANT LA LIBERT RELIGIEUSE


Ausgabe Nr. 14 Monat Mai 2008
EL PROBLEMA DE LA RESTITUCION DE LA JERARQUIA CATOLICA


Ausgabe Nr. 14 Monat Mai 2008
EL PROBLEMA DE LA RESTITUCION DE LA JERARQUIA CAT. 1.Cont


Ausgabe Nr. 14 Monat Mai 2008
EL PROBLEMA DE LA RESTITUCION DE LA JERARQUIA CAT. 2.Cont


Ausgabe Nr. 14 Monat Mai 2008
EL TEMA DE LA RESTAURACION DE LA JERARQUIA CATOLICA


Ausgabe Nr. 14 Monat Mai 2008
LA RESTAURACION DE LA JERARQUIA CATOLICA - BIBLIOGRAFIA


Ausgabe Nr. 12 Monat Mrz 2008
REPLICA AL ARTICULO 'APOSTASIA Y CONFUSION'


Ausgabe Nr. 15 Monat Juli 2008
DICTAMEN SOBRE UNA ELECION PAPAL EN LAS PRESENTES CIRCUNSTANCIAS


Ausgabe Nr. 15 Monat Juli 2008
ELIGENDUS EST PAPA


Ausgabe Nr. 2 Monat April 2009
Die Holocaust-Latte liegt zu hoch!


Ausgabe Nr. 2 Monat April 2009
Dokumente zum Fall Williamson


Ausgabe Nr. 11 Monat Mai 2009
The Holocaust Bar is too High


Ausgabe Nr. 11 Monat Mai 2009
SATIS COGNITUM


Ausgabe Nr. 11 Monat Mai 2009
Documents about the Case Williamson


Ausgabe Nr. 11 Monat Mai 2009
Sedevacantists Believe in the Holy Roman Catholic Church‏


Ausgabe Nr. 3 Monat August 2009
Von der wahren Kirche Christi


Ausgabe Nr. 12 Monat September 2009
Aeterni Patris, engl


Ausgabe Nr. 12 Monat September 2009
Aeterni Patris, span


Ausgabe Nr. 12 Monat September 2009
Le bon sens catholique


Ausgabe Nr. 13 Monat Diciembre 2009
REFLEXIONES SOBRE LA NATIVIDAD DE NUESTRO SEOR


Ausgabe Nr. 4 Monat Dezember 2009
Die Gttlichkeit des Christentums


Ausgabe Nr. 13 Monat Diciembre 2009
Christmas Letter 2009


Ausgabe Nr. 13 Monat Diciembre 2009
Humani Generis


Ausgabe Nr. 13 Monat Diciembre 2009
Festividad de Cristo Rey


Ausgabe Nr. 13 Monat Diciembre 2009
St. Leo the Great


Ausgabe Nr. 13 Monat Diciembre 2009
LEGLISE CATHOLIQUE-ROMAINE DE LA DIASPORA


Ausgabe Nr. 13 Monat Diciembre 2009
Estado de emergencia: afianzado en cemento


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Consolazioni per i fedeli


Ausgabe Nr. 11 Monat giugno 2010
Al crocevia


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Novena To The Holy Ghost


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Auctorem fidei - III


Ausgabe Nr. 12 Monat luglio 2010
Auctorem fidei - IV


Ausgabe Nr. 3 Monat August 2010
Die Synode von Pistoia und ihre Verurteilung durch Pius VI.


Ausgabe Nr. 3 Monat August 2010
Breve Pius VI. an den Bischof von Chiusi und Pienza


Ausgabe Nr. 11 Monat Februar 2011
A. 8. c-d Der wahre Kern der Intentionsfrage:


Ausgabe Nr. 12 Monat Mrz 2011
B. 10. a - 11. Aber ist die an den gesamten Klerus der Rest-Kirche gerichtete Forderung


Ausgabe Nr. 13 Monat June 2011
Clerical Abuse


Ausgabe Nr. 13 Monat June 2011
E sarete come Dio (Gn. 3, 5)


Ausgabe Nr. 13 Monat June 2011
A proposito della situazione attuale della Chiesa


Ausgabe Nr. 13 Monat June 2011
Al crocevia


Ausgabe Nr. 13 Monat June 2011
SOBRE LA REALIDAD Y LA EXITENCIA DEL PURGATORIO


Ausgabe Nr. 2 Monat Juni 2011
Vom klerikalen Mibrauch in traditionalistischen Kreisen


Ausgabe Nr. 2 Monat Juni 2011
Ein Besuch bei Fr. Krier in Las Vegas/USA


Ausgabe Nr. 4 Monat Dezember 2011
Der Wiederaufbau der Kirche als Institution


Ausgabe Nr. 1 Monat Februar 2012
Brief an Herrn Gilbert Gris


Ausgabe Nr. 1 Monat Februar 2012
Verwechslung mit Folgen


Ausgabe Nr. 3 Monat September 2012
Erneut auf dem Prfstand


Ausgabe Nr. 4 Monat Dezember 2012
Hart, aber fair - ein Briefwechsel zur aktuellen kirchlichen Situation


Ausgabe Nr. 1 Monat Mrz 2013
Die Verhandlung vor dem Synedrium


Ausgabe Nr. 1 Monat Mrz 2013
Null und nichtig der Ritus der Bischofsweihe von 1968


Ausgabe Nr. 2 Monat Juni 2013
Habemus Papam? Zur Wahl von Jorge Mario Bergoglio


Ausgabe Nr. 2 Monat Juni 2013
Null und nichtig der Ritus der Bischofsweihe von 1968


Ausgabe Nr. 4 Monat Dezember 2013
NACHRICHTEN, NACHRICHTEN, NACHRICHTEN...


Ausgabe Nr. 4 Monat Dezember 2014
Das erzieherische Wirken der Kirche


Ausgabe Nr. 2 Monat April 2015
Leserbrief zu: Gehrt der Islam zu Deutschland?


Ausgabe Nr. 2 Monat April 2015
Islamisches Recht (arīa) mit dem Grundgesetz vereinbar?(1)


Ausgabe Nr. 4 Monat September 2015
Die Irrtmer des II. Vatikanums und ihre berwindung durch die Erkenntnis Christi als Sohn Gottes


Ausgabe Nr. 1 Monat Februar 2016
Er sah ihn und ging vorber Priester ohne kirchliche Sendung: das Legitimittsproblem


Ausgabe Nr. 2 Monat Mai 2016
Er sah ihn und ging vorber Priester ohne kirchliche Sendung: das Legitimittsproblem


Ausgabe Nr. 3 Monat September 2016
Et regnabunt cum Christo mille annis


Ausgabe Nr. 4 Monat November 2016
Et regnabunt cum Christo mille annis


Ausgabe Nr. 1 Monat Februar 2017
Et regnabunt cum Christo mille annis


Ausgabe Nr. 2 Monat Mai 2017
Et regnabunt cum Christo mille annis


Ausgabe Nr. 1 Monat Februar 2018
Arianer, Nicaner, Modernisten, Lefebvristen, Sedisprivationisten, Sedisvakantisten, Nonkonformisten und Schlafmützen: Maran atha! - Komm Herr!


Ausgabe Nr. 3 Monat August 2018
Leserbriefe


Ausgabe Nr. 4 Monat November 2018
Die Auserwhlung Marias


Ausgabe Nr. 3 Monat September 2019
Mitstreiter gesucht Brief an einen Konservativen


Ausgabe Nr. 4 Monat Dezember 2019
Weihnachten 2019


Ausgabe Nr. 1 Monat Februar 2020
Papa contra Papam


Ausgabe Nr. 3 Monat Mai 2020
... mit leeren Hnden um Kopf und Kragen


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The Errors of Vatican II and their defeat through Recognizing Christ as Son of God


Ausgabe Nr. 4 Monat Juni 2020
Is Jesus Christ the Son of God?


Ausgabe Nr. 4 Monat Juni 2020
The Question remains: Is Jesus Christ the Son of God?


Ausgabe Nr. 5 Monat Juni 2020
Los errores del Vaticano II y su superacin gracias al conocimiento de Cristo como Hijo de Dios


Ausgabe Nr. 5 Monat Juni 2020
Es Jesucristo el Hijo de Dios?


Ausgabe Nr. 5 Monat Juni 2020
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Ausgabe Nr. 5 Monat Juni 2020
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Ausgabe Nr. 5 Monat Juni 2020
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Ausgabe Nr. 5 Monat Juni 2020
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Ausgabe Nr. 6 Monat Juni 2020
Jsus-Christ est-il le Fils de Dieu?


Ausgabe Nr. 6 Monat Juni 2020
Les erreurs de Vatican II


Ausgabe Nr. 7 Monat Juli 2020
NACHRICHTEN, NACHRICHTEN, NACHRICHTEN...


Ausgabe Nr. 1 Monat Februar 2021
Auf dem langsamen Marsch in die Apostasie deutsch englisch


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Das Turiner Grabtuch ein Beweis fr die Existenz Jesu? Teil I


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Hyopstatische Union - Teil 2


Ausgabe Nr. 5 Monat November 2021
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Ausgabe Nr. 3 Monat September 2012
October 9th, 2012 an Oppressing Anniversary


A PAPAL ELECTION UNDER THE PRESENT CIRCUMSTANCES
 
A PAPAL ELECTION UNDER THE PRESENT CIRCUMSTANCES
- Basic Guidelines-



By
Professor Toms Tello Corraliza (Spain)

May, 1994

I.
At this time, the Seclevacantist Catholics are sure that the College of Cardinals has disappeared. By ecclesiastical law the Cardinals had for centuries the exclusive right and duty of electing the Pope, however, under the present circumstances, when there are not Cardinals, one must determine who are the rightful electors and what are the conditions to carry out this election.

Juridical integration is absolutely necessary to fill this gap and to replace the lack of the former electors. The extinction of the vacancy of the Holy See is, by divine right, a pressing and unavoidable need. St. Pius X in his constitution about the papal election says: "Vacante Sede Apostolica Illud Gravissimum Sanctissimumque Est,..Summum Dominici Gregis Pastorem Et Caput... Eligere. Also Pius XII in his constitution: "Vacantis Apostolicae Sedis", describes this obligation as "A VERY SERIOUS DUTY" concerning the Church by divine mandate: "Pergravi Negotio Ecclesiae Divinitus Commisso".

To find the solution to the problem of the so called Great Western Schism, there were requests to the theologians and canonists to express their opinions according to their knowledge and understanding of the situation. Today we have a good knowledge of the history and legal actions of the Church throughout the centuries, and there is not place for arbitrary solutions: the coincidences of point of view from different opinions are numerous and accurate. The essential points are evident and impertinent digressions are not applicable.

"Juridical gaps exist, not only when there is not a given norm for the case, but when other present norms are not applicable..." (Comments to the Canon Law; B.A.C., Vol. I, comments to canon 20, by Father Cabreros Anta). Dr. Homero Johas remarks, about the second case when an existing law cannot be applied in this specific problem, that there are four guidelines which make us use the suppletory right; they are:
a) the lack of electors appointed by human laws;
b) some factual-doubts;
c) the division or schisms among the electors, and
d) the negligence of the electors on applying the law.
("ROMA", No 125, 1992 pages 37-57)

In suppletory right one must follow the law: "NORMA SUMENDA EST". In this particular case canon 20 offers four guidelines to deduce the norm that should be applied:
1. "a legibus ratis in similibus";
2. "a generalibus juris principiis cum aequitate canonica servatis";
3. "a stylo et praxi Curiae Romanae";
4. "a communi constantique sententia doctorum".

Fr. Cabreros Anta, in his comments to canon 20, makes the juridical evaluation of the practice of the suppletory right:"These four guidelines are authentic, because they are the consequences of precepts by the Supreme Legislator. The Norm, that is their conseauence, is a legitimate one because the proceeding established by the legislator has been followed...

It is not necessary to implement the suppletory means in the order presented in canon 20, but an order of preference should be followed.

It is sufficient the use of a suppletory mean; if it is applied right, it will not be opposed to the others. In this work I will present my opinion based on all the suppletory means and I will follow the order of preference. The study will be divided in two sections: they are two different questions with independent answers:
I- WHO ARE, UNDER THE PRESENT CIRCUMSTANCES,THE RIGHTFUL ELECTORS OF THE HOLY FATHER?

II. WHAT PROCEDURE SHOULD BE FOLLOWED?

We will be dealing with the first question following the order of canon 20:

1- According to the first criterion, the substitution should be a consequence of a legal analogy. "The analogical operation completes the legislative work, on doing what one may assume the legislator would have done, but he did not do it. The legal analogy is established according to similar norms, that usually are not difficult to find, provided a careful study is made comparing the subjects, the persons, the goals and special reasons of the laws, and, finally, all the circumstances". (Father Cabreros Anta).

Therefore, it is necessary to look for an applicable norm in this extremely particular case, that could not have been foreseen; there will be a greater assurance of success if the number of interpreters, experts in the law, who are working in finding the norm, is larger. The legal analogy can he found not only in the laws, presently in force, but also in the old laws, promulgated for the same case. Fr. Cabreros Anta says: "Neither explicitly, nor implicitly, one may consider inserted in the Code those ancient laws, that presently are applicable only as integration of the new law in case of a legal deficiency. (Canon 20). Because of a legal deficiency, the Code does not contain, either explicitly or implicitly, any ancient law in particular; it only indicates the authentic criterion to find or create the applicable norm, that can coincide materially with the ancient law". Title IV, Ch. I, Article II of Book II of the Canon Law is related to this subject, because it deals with elections and provision of offices; papal election is related to this matter as genders are related to species.

Canon 109 is particularly important because it establishes a principle of divine law: "those who are admitted in the Ecclesiastical Hierarchy are not admitted by consensus or the call of the people or by the secular authority". Father Arturo Lobo makes this comment about this canon, in his work in the B.A.C. :
"The people and the civil authority are not competent to confer a power, that, at least, because of its objective, is always supernatural... It is true that at certain times in the History of the Church, people and civil authority intervened in the election of persons who became members of the hierarchy, but that was only tolerated as a source of information. On the other hand, the good will and the absolute obedience rendered at that time by the faithfuls to the Ecclesiastical Authority considered as prudent (underlined by the author of this article) the tolerance of that meddling, and furthermore, contributed to the subsequent public appreciation for the persons elected for the spiritual government of the community".

Canon 166 is very clear: "Si laici contra canonicam lihertatem electioni ecclesiasticae quoquo modo sese immiscuerint, electio ipso jure invalida est". That is: "the meddling of the lay people in an ecclesiastical election, against the canonical freedom, 'ipso jure' makes the election invalid".

Father Lobo comments:
"The majority could authorize the physical presence of alien people at the act of voting with the conditions that they do not vote (C. 165) and that they do no wrest freedom to voters (c. 166). The meddling of lay people or civil authorities that EFFECTIVELY hampers the freedom of most voters (for example: by force, deceit, fraud, bribery or veto) would nullify the election according to the law; however, the simple request, advice or influence on behalf of a candidate, without a real result in the election, do not cause the same nullifying effect".

Obstructing the freedom of the electors or meddling illegitimately in an ecclesiastical election constitute a crime, penalized in canon 2390. Up to this point, we have referred to what concerns the ecclesiastical elections "in genere". Let's go now by the History of the Church, and let's consider the special circumstances at certain times, throughout the twenty centuries of its existence, in the papal election, as well as the periodical laws promulgated by the Sovereign Pontiffs. This study has been completely done in the "Dictionnaire de la Theologie Catholique de Vacant": (Articles: "Eleciton des Papes", col. 2281-2318, and "Conclave").

I summarize the historical presentation of the "D.T.C." The method for the papal election has not been established by the Divine Law. (This is the most common opinion, and it prevails against the opinion of Dom Grea, who thinks that the natural electors, by divine law, are the members of the clergy of the Roman Diocese). The laws about the papal elections are ecclesiastical laws. Christ gave to his Church, and, specially, to the Supreme Shepherd, the responsiblity to establish the regulations of this essential point of the ecclesiastical discipline and to introduce the modifications required by the vicissitudes of times.

In the beginning, the papal election, like the election of other bishops, took place without any positive law, in a spontaneous way, that became a custom, by the clergy and people. Specifically, bishops were elected by the people, the clergy and the provincial bishops, under the presidency of the Metropolitan Bishop. That was the way used in the diocese of Rome. However, THE PEOPLE DID NOT HAVE AN ABSOLUTE RIGHT TO VOTE. It is true that people could express their wishes and preferences, but the favorite one was not risen to the episcopacy until he got the acceptance of the provincial and the Metropolitan bishops. Even in the earliest times this proverb became common: "DOCENDUS EST POPULUS, NON SEQUENDUS".

The Council of Nicaea set very clearly this aspect of the absolute right in the elections of bishops: "Si quis praeter sententiam Metropolitani fuerit factus episcopus, hunc magna Synodus definit episcopum esse non oportere". (Canon 6). It prescribes that without the consent of the Metropolitan, the episcopal election would be null. Nevertheless, it was advisable the consultation of the people... The Church considered a legitimate reason for this situation to make easier the affection of the people for the exercise of obedience. The election of the bishop of Rome was not an exception to this custom. The Roman People proposed some names. The clergy and its dignataries examined the first list, and, according to their judgement, they added or suppressed names. Finally, THE BISHOPS OF THE ROMAN PROVINCE OR SUBURBS, gathered together, and in the last instancy they took a decision about the candidates presented by the Roman Clergy and People. Little by little, among the clergy, the exclusive influence of the titularies of the Roman Churches and Basilicas (that is: the "CARDINATI") became more powerful. When the number of the faithfuls was growing, it was realized the great inconvenience of their participation, under no circumstances, in those elections.

The Legislation About The Papal Election

I - A
Beginnings: Saint Symmachus promulgated the first decree about the papal election in three articles, in the year 499. In the third article it is prescribed that the elected one should obtain the simple majority of votes of ALL THE CLERGY. This is the first attempt to set regulations and the first step toward the restricted suffrage. The Church, throughout its history, specially during the Middle Age, had to compromise and tolerate the imperial "PLACET" and other illegitimate meddling, to avoid greater evils; however, the Church authorities often protested against the usurpation of their rights.

I - B
Nicholas II: A turning point in the customs of the first millenium was the law of the papal election promulgated by Nicholas II on April 13, 1059 in the Bull "IN NOMINE DOMINI". The main point is that from the eleventh century on the election of the Sovereign Pontiff became the duty of the Cardinal-Bishops. As for the other members of the Clergy, they were requested to adhere to the election, according to the old tradition, but that was a secondary formality. The main role was performed by the "CARDINAL-BISHOPS". In another section of the Bull it is authorized that in the case when the election could not take place in Rome, the "CARDINAL-BISHOPS" should assemble elsewhere, wherever they believe it may be more convenient, even if the number of pious clergy and faithfuls who follow them would be very reduced.

II.
Saint Gregory VII (Hildebrand): As the pope from 1073-1085 he worked tirelessly in order that the papal election would not be the outcome of the universal suffrage, but of the restricted vote of an electoral body, only an ecclesiastical one, and from which the lay people would be definitely excluded. He reaffirmed the important Bull of Nicholas II.

III.
Constitution of Alexander III: According to the provisions of Nicholas II, only the "CARDINAL-Bishops" would take part in the the pontifical election in an active manner; but little by little the Cardinal-Presbyters and the Cardinal-Deacons believed that they also had the right to cast their votes. This usurped and tolerated use would produce the schism of Pier Leoni (Anacletus II) who was elected in 1130 by the Cardinal-Presbyters and the Cardinal-Deacons. However, the Bull of Nicholas II was clear: THE CARDINAL-PRESBYTERS AND THE CARDINAL-DEACONS HAD A CONSULTIVE ROLE NOT A DELIBERATIVE ROLE.

Thirty years later, another similar case occurred. Therefore, it was urgent to put an end to this risk of schism, adjusting the legislation to the surreptitiously introduced custom, rather than breaking definitely with it. That was the objective of the Constitution of Alexander III (pope from 1159-1181) in the Third Lateran Council: "LICET DE VITANDA" (1179), about a century after the Bull of Nicholas II.

From then on the Cardinals of the three orders would form the electoral body and the two thirds majority would be required instead of a simple majority. Furthermore, on allowing Cardinals OF DIFFERENT NATIONAL ORIGINS, from several Catholic countries, a representative College of the Universal Church was established, whose character would be as international and universal as the Papacy.
Up to here, the brief summary of the "Dictionnaire de la Theologie Catholique, de Vacant". While the electoral college became international the customary right of the Roman Clergy to the election was maintained (at least as a simple souvenir); it was hateful any change of that customary right, so the problem was solved by the juridical fiction of granting the title of a Roman Parish to the Cardinal-Presbyters from other diocesis.

Conclusions or consequences from the first criterion of canon 20 to get a suppletory norm "a legibus latis in similibus":

1- Catholic lay people absolutely lack the right to vote in any ecclesiastical election, except by special privilege that should be granted clearly and must be authentic "a fortiori" in a papal election. This possibility could only be admitted in the hypothetical case that all the clergy would stubbornly refuse the fulfillment of that extremely serious duty. This does not mean that one cannot make resource to lay people (specially in the present circumstances), asking them from advice, opinions and accurate information about the qualities of possible candidates. Even, one can follow the example of the Church who tolerated and compromised (to avoid greater evils), so one could consider convenient the suffrage of certain qualified lay people, who could be exceptional witnesses to the purity of the election process. What a lay person cannot ask is the vote as a right. It would be an illegitimately meddling against the canonical freedom of the election, and would make void "IPSO JURE" that election according to canon 166.

2- It seems that the right electors, who directly and in the first place must end the vacancy, in these circumstances, are the BISHOPS. As a matter of fact, on making a historical study of the papal elections, we can isolate a constant fact that gives us the key to know for sure which members of the Church (or from what category) are the rightful electors for ecclesiastical positions. We remark at once that those who are never absent are the members of the episcopacy. THAT NEVER CHANGES. On the other hand, the bishops acted alone for more than a century, according to the ecclesiastical law, and excluding the other categories.
Therefore, when the appointed electors by ecclesiastical law have disappeared, the logical consequence is that the real electors, by divine right, are the BISHOPS. (This is what I think, "salvo meliore").

3- It does not make sense to state, without specification, that the Roman Clergy is indispensable to carry, out such election and much less to proclaim, as Dom Grea does, in "L'Eglise et sa Divine Constitution" (page 176), that the Roman Clergy has the exclusive right to the papal election, and, even to insist that this is by divine right.

4- Let us see what suppletory norm we can get from the second criterion in the law, that is, from the General Principles of Right: "a generalibus juris principiis cum aequitate canonica servatis".

The DIVINE RIGHT is, without any doubt, the highest of the general principles of the Canon Law, either natural or positive, explicitly proclaimed in the same law. (Canon 6, 6th).

The BISHOPS, as successors of the Apostles, were told, by Divine Right (not to the lower clergy): "...quaecumque alligaveritis super terram, erunt ligata et in caelo; et quaecumque solveritis super terram, erunt soluta et in caelo" (Mat. 18, 18). Peter Abelardo's error, condemned by the Church (D.379) was to affirm that only the Apostles received this power, and not his successors.

As far as the episcopal power is concerned, one should have in mind that the Bishops are the main and primary members of the Mystical Body of Christ (D.S. 3804). They rule the Church, in their assigned areas, not as the Vicars of the Pope, but "Ut Vicarii et Legati Christi regunt" (Benedict XIV, Brev. Romana Ecclesia, October 5, 1752, and in M.C., already quoted, and also in "Satis Cognitum" in D.S. 3307-3310).

Thence, I infer ("salvo meliore) that the rightful electors, by divine right, are the faithful bishops, either many or few, whom we may trust at the present time. It is up to them the full right and the very serious duty of ending the already too long vacancy, in the present circumstances. This does not mean that they could not ask and invite priests and even deacons, because of the reduced number of existing known orthodox bishops.

5- The third criterion for suppletory norm according to the law, is the style and practice of the Roman Curia: "a stylo et praxi Curiae Romanae". We cannot get anything from this criterion, because the Roman Curia has not given any direction about it. A situation like the present one was an unthinkable case.

However, we have an example, that is much more important and full of teachings than any direction given by the Curia, as such, because it was an event that involved the infallibility of the Church. This is the solution adopted to solve the problem created by the Great Western Schism. This one must be our juridical Guide-Case, as I said in my speech in the Congress of Brussels (9-28-91).

The decision of the Fathers of the Council of Constance (1417) to elect a legitimate and doubtless Pope, after the deposig the dubious ones, was to establish an Electoral Body, formed by the dubious Cardinals and a kind of Compromisaries, 30 prelates, six for each one of the five nations, in which they arbitratrily classified the Bishops of the European Christendom.

Let us consider the trascendent event in that crossroad of perplexity in the history of the Church. An Ecumenical Council (although necessarily imperfect, under the circumstances) had to be infallible on interpreting the Divine Right, in order to avoid acting against it. In fact, the Supreme Authority approved it, so we cannot doubt that those Fathers of the Council acted according to the demands of the Divine Right.
Therefore, the alternative they chose "ad cautelam", was not a selection of the Roman Clergy who, according to the thesis of Dom Grea are the rightful electors by Divine Right, neither a selection of the Canons of St. John Lateran, who could be the choice of others, nor of a group of the simple faithfuls, what at this time other authors want; but what they did was a selection of bishops, that is, of members with jurisdiction, of the main and primary members of the Church.

Thence, the consequence is that the rightful electors, by Divine Right, (those who must decide about the papal election in these circumstances) are the BISHOPS, to whom it was also said: "What you bind on earth, it will be bound in heaven..."(Mat. 18, 18)

6- Let us study finally the fourth and last criterion prescribed by the law in order to obtain a legal suppletory norm, that is: "of the common and constant sentence sof the doctors": "a communi constantique sententia doctorum".

In Fr. Cabreros Anta's book that has been mentioned, he says: "Although the Canonical Doctrine, by itself does not have a juridical value, it has been raised, by the will of the legislator, to a suppletory source. This suppletory norm is not really different from the former ones, but the application of them. The authority of the doctors or experts in the law is also the argument or suppletory mean. The sentences of doctors are known as extremely common, when they are accepted by all; in this case, the doctrine is morally true. Canon 20 accepts as a suppletory source the canonical doctrine, even if it is not extremely common, provided it is common and constant, because when this is the case, the applicable norm is sufficiently rational and sure.

The old canonists gave the name of Common Sentence to one defended "EX PROFESSO" or in a detailed study, by six or seven serious doctors, who are recognized by their great science or expertise. The doctrine must be constantly maintained by its defenders, so that for them there is not doubt or change of opinion. The reason why the ecclesiastical legislator accepts the common and constant sentence of the doctors as a suppletory source is not their jurisdictional authority, that they do not have, but their scientific authority, that makes possible to assume their doctrine as true or really probable. This common and constant doctrine makes sure the interpretation of the law, if another doctrine, with similar authority, does not contradict it. When it deals with supplying, it can be prudent and acceptable, according to Canon 20, even if there is an opposite sentence of equal authority; but it cannot be accepted if the presumption or serious probability of the truth on which is founded the authority of the doctors is destroyed with powerful arguments.

Fortunately we rely on a series of doctors, who have reached an agreement about this matter, that it was for them completely hypothetical. Let us see. The doctrine of these authors has been mentioned, exposed and interpreted by several contemporary authors, with the intention of advising the papal election or deterring it. None of them is exhaustive in the quote and exposition of all the authors who have dealt with this matter. I completed the collection after reading all of them. The contemporary authors who cite those doctors are the following writers:

Abb V. M. Zins, in "SUB TUUM PRAESIDIUM", No 4, July 1986, pages 34-38.
Daly J. Britons, "C. L. Letter" No 7, Nov. 1990, pages 114-119.
Johas, Homero, in "ROMA", No 125, pages 38-39 and 44.
Mock, K. J. "In defense of a Future Papal Election"; Lecture by the author in the Congress gathered in Spokane, Washington, U.S.A., at the end of June, 1993.

The doctors cited by them are, chronologically: CAYETANO, VITORIA, SAINT ROBERT BELLARMINO, JOHN OF ST. THOMAS, DOM GREA, L. BILLOT and CH. JOURNET. A total of seven.

1) CAYETANO (CAJETAN) (1469-1534) deals with this matter in "De Comparatione Auctoritatis Papae et Concilii" and in "Apologia De Comparata Auctoritate Papae et Concilii": "Papatus, secluso Papa, non est in Ecclesia nisi in potentia ministerialiter electiva, quia scilicet potest, sede vacante Papam eligere per Cardinales, vel PER SE IPSAM". The method "PER SE IPSAM" refers to the extraordina procedure of a papal election, and it requires some explanation in the mind of Cajetan: "In case the norms cannot be applied, the task of supplying them would fall on the Church by restitution". (Apologia, Chapter XIII).
The power of electing the Pope, resides in the Pope himself, in an eminent, regular and principal manner. Eminently, because he has the full power that contains all the infer powers. Regularly, by an ordinary right; there is here a difference with the Church, that could not determine by herself a new method of election EXCEPT IN A CASE OBLIGED BY NECESSITY.

Principally, because in the Church this power resides only in a secondary way. However, in an exceptional case, for example, if the would have not foreseen anything in the matter, or if it would he uncertain who the true Cardinals or the true Pope are, as it happened AT THE TIME OF THE WESTERN SCHISM, then the power of election WOULD RETURN TO THE UNIVERSAL CHURCH. (Apologia, Chapter XIII). Also: "In the absence of the Clergy of Rome, it would correspond to the Universal Church (it refers to the papal election), because the Pope should be the Bishop (of the Universal Church). The expression "it falls on the Church by restitution", should not be taken in its strict canonical meaning, according to what Cajetan himself explains, but in the opposite sense of the transmission from a superior to the immediate inferior.

2) FRANCISCO DE VITORIA (1483-1546). Vitoria is cited only by Dr. Johas, the other authors ignore him. That is too bad because Vitoria in his exposition is very straight, more complete, more clear and more convincing in his reasonings. Therefore, I will take the quotes from Vitoria directly from his texts. Vitoria exposes his thesis in his work "Relecciones Teolgicas" (Volume II of the Critical Edition of his works, by Magister Fr. Luis G. Alonso Getino, Madrid, 1934). He deals with this issue in the "Releccin Segunda": "De Potestate Ecclesiae" (pages 151-168). After proving that Peter must have perpetual successors (point 18), presents his fifth proposition: "Mortuo Petro; Ecclesia habet potestatem subrogandi, et instituendi alium in loco illius, etiam si Petrus nihil de hoc prius constituisset". "Constituta a Christo patestate (spirituali) non videtur quod Ecclesia sit peioris conditionis a eligendum sibi Principem, quam civilis Respublica, quae quocumque casu, deficiente Principe, potest sibi alium constituere. Item, ut dictum est, haec potestas oportebat ut perseveraret in Ecclesia, sed defuncto Petro, et nihil de succesore providente, nec statuente, ut contingere poterat, non restabat aliud medium, ni per electionem Ecclesiae. Ergo " That is: "this (spiritual) power has been created by Christ, so it would not be fair to place the Church in worse condition than the civil society, and if this one, on losing its prince, can appoint another one, the Church also could elect one... if nothing has been set before hand, what could happen, the only possible solution is the election by the Church. Therefore... He proves this instance supposing one possibility: the total disappearance of the Electoral Body: "Quia nunc etiam, si aut bellum, aut pestilentia, aut alia calamitas, aut casus absumeret Cardinales, non est DUBITANDUM quin Ecclesia posset providere sibi de Summo Pontifice: alias vacaret perpetuo illa Sedes, quae tamen perpetuo debet durare. Item illa potestas est communis, et SPECTAT AD TOTAM ECCLESIAM; ergo a tota ECCLESIA debet provideri, et NON AB ALIQUA PARTICULARI ECCLESIA, vel certo ordine, aut genere hominum: immo negligentibus Cardinalibus, aut perniciose dissidentibus, ECCLESIA POSSET SIBI PROVIDERE"; that is : "If, because of the mentioned causes, the Electoral College of Cardinals would disappear (they are the exclusive electors by human law); we cannot doubt that the Church could provide for herself the Supreme Pontiff; if the Church does not do it, the Holy See would stay vacant forever, and that is not possible because she must last forever. Furthermore, that power is common and belongs to the whole Church; therefore the whole Church should provide in this matter, and not a particular Church or certain class of persons. Even, if the Cardinals would be to be blamed for their division or negligence) THE CHURCH COULD ELECT A POPE."

Now, let us see what Vitoria understands, in point 19, by TOTA ECCLESIA in this case: Vitoria wonders: "SED AB OMNIBUS CHRISTIANIS?"; and he answers: "ELECTIO SUMMI PONTIFICIS IN TALl CASU SPECTARET AD SOLUM CLERUM, ET NULLO MODO AD POPULUM". And he gives the reason: "Quia administratio rerum spiritualium nullo modo spectat ad laicos...; sed institutio Summi Pontifices maxime expectat ad gubernationem et administrationem rerum spiritualium, ergo nullo modo spectat ad laicos Item, electio presbyterorum aut Episcoporum non spectat ad plebem... Ergo multo minus electio Summi Pontificis... Item: Quia talis electio esset prorsus impossibilis, cum esset impossibile ut totus populus conveniret ad eligendum, nec postquam convenissent, posset contingere, ut major pars unum et eundem optaret".

As we see, he excludes from such election, in the supposed extraordinary circumstances, THE LAY PEOPLE, secondary members of the Church, giving several reasons for that exclusion. And then, advancing straight forward, with logical soundness, he establishes the seventh proposition in point 20. After rejecting the Universal Suffrage in the Church, he restrains even more the right of the election in the clergy. PROPOSITION :"Immo non videtur etiam talis electio spectare ad totum clerum". And he gives the reason: "Quia licet ad omnes clericos spectet administratio spiritualium, tamen non omnia spectant ad omnes, sed citra Episcopos omnes habent certa et limitata ministeria, extra quae non extendit se eorum officium, ut Diaconi ministrant, Presbyteris; Presbyteri autem ministrant Sacramenta: et eadem ratione vix convenire posset Clerus totius orbis ad talem electionem".

So, he excludes the Clergy inferior to the Episcopacy. Who are, then, the rightful electors, by divine right? Vitoria explains this in point 21, eighth Proposition: "In quocumque casu vacaret Sedes Apostolica, MANENDO IN SOLE JURE DIVINO, electio spectaret ad OMNES EPISCOPOS CHRISTIANITATIS". And he proves this point: "Quia ipsi sunt Pastores Gregis, et Curatoras et Tutores, et tota administratio ecclesiastica citra Summurn Pontificern spectat ad eos, et omnia possunt per se ' quae inferiores omnes possunt. Dico ergo, quod quomodocumque, sive instituto, sive casu omnes Episcopi Christiani convenirent, in tali casu Episcopi possent eligene UNUM SUMMUM PONTIFICEM tantae authoritatis, sicut fuit Beatus Petrus, ETIAM RECLAMANTIBUS OMNIBUS, VEL MAJORI, PARTE LAICOPUM, AUT ETIAM CLERICORUM".

However, he recognizes that it is very convenient that an ecclesiastic law should exist to establish an undoubtful Electoral Body to avoid occasions of schism. If the Electoral Body were too large, embracing all the bishops in the world, he sees that as a moral impossibility, specially in his time (XVI century), to call and gather them together; so it is up to Peter and his successors to decide, because the popes have full power. He objects the election by the Roman Clergy in the first centuries. "Nam (ut ex historia habetur) aliquando vel Clerus Romanus, vel populus, Summum Sacerdotem eligebant." To this point he responds saying that :"si Clerus aut Populus Romani aliquando hoc jus habuit, ut eligeret Summum Pontificem, hoc fuit certe, vel lege de hoc lata, vel consuetudine recepta, et non JURE DIVINO. Nam etiam eligento Roma Clero, Si EPISCOPI CHRISTIANI ratam habebant electionem, hoc satis est potuit, ut illa farma electionem per aliquam aetatem servaretur". That is: "If in the first centuries the Pope was elected by the Roman Clergy and People, we can be sure, that either there was a law about it, or it was an accepted custom; but it was not by DIVINE RIGHT. If the Roman People elected and the Catholic Bishops ratified the election that could be sufficient reason to practice this method of election for some time".

Eleventh Proposition: "Ratio eligendi Summum Pontificem, quae nunc servatur in Ecclesia, non est de JURE DIVINO". Haec nota est ex praecedentihus, quia exclusa humana lege, spectat ad Episcopos. Item: non invenitur in toto JURE DIVINO. Item: Petri successores potuerunt eam mutare, ut dictum est. Item: non semper hoc modo fuit facta. Et ultimo quia ordo Cardinalium, qui nunc sunt electores, non est de JURE DIVINO."
In other words, this is not by DIVINE RIGHT,
1) because if the human law is left aside, the election belongs to the bishops;
2) nothing is found in the whole divine right about this method of election;
3) because the successors of Peter could change it, and in fact they did it; and
4) because the Cardinals, who presently are the electors, are not electors by DIVINE RIGHT.    
The clear exposition of Vitoria ratifies, in a very convincing way, that the rightful ELECTORS, by DIVINE RIGHT, "seclusa legi papali" about this matter, are the CATHOLIC BISHOPS.

3) Saint Robert Bellarmino (1542-1621) deals with this matter in "Controversiae: De Clericis, L.I." (chapter 10, Proposition 8). H. Johas cites him "ad sensum" along with Billot. The quote of the text, made by J. Daly is as follows: "The General Council would be competent, but practically would have to be accommodated to the present process by the Roman Clergy and by the bihops closer to Rome, or subject to the Bishop of Rome". Bellarmino accepts the General Council, according to the precedent of Constance, but at the same time he hesitates and is inconsistent, assing the existence of the Roman Cardinals, who, precisely in the hypothesis and in the present situation have disappeared.


4) Juan de Santo Tomas (John of St. Thomas) (1589-1644) The work of this author related to the matter in hand is: "Cursus Theologicus in Summam Theologiae D. Thomae" (II-II, q.7, a. 7, disp. 2a I No. 9) It is brought by Ab. Zins, quoted by Journet: "If the power to elect the Pope belongs, by the nature of the things, and, therefore, by DIVINE RIGHT, to the Church as a whole with her head, the practical method on the election (according to John of St. Thomas) is not stated in the Holy Scripture; it is the simple Ecclesiastical Law that determines which persons in the Church could validly perform the election". "John of St. Thomas remarks that the Church has the full power not over the validly elected pope, but over the election itself, taking the necessary steps to carry it on..." "That is what was done at the time of the Council of Constance, what is emphasized by John of St. Thomas himself".

5) Dom Grea, quoted by Zins and by J. Daly. This doctor is definitely opposed to all the others: "The election of the Sovereign Pontiff belongs so excluively to the Roman Church, that no power, no assembly, no Council, even an ecumenical one, could replace it". (L'Eglise et sa Divine Constitution, page 176). This opinion is refuted by Zins (1.c.p.35), so I am not going to spend time to contradict this serious error of Dom Grea.

6) Cardinal Louis Billot. All authors, except Zins, cite him, and even Daly and Mock do it extensively. I will summarize the doctrine of Cardinal Billot about this matter. After setting, as something that cannot be contradicted, that in normal circumstances the papal law must be followed, and that this law cannot be neither modified, nor changed by any other authority in the Church; then, he considers the hypothesis of an extraordinary circumstance, when the papal election according to the law would be impossible.
Billot reaches the conclusion, that in an extraorciinary case, when it would be necessary to elect the pope, in the impossiblity of following the rules of the papal election (as it was the case at the time of the Great Schism, when Martin V was elected), one should accept without difficulties that the electoral power would pass to a General Council, because the Natural Law itself demands that in those cases the power of a superior should pass to the immediate inferior power by a way of restitution, because it is indispensably necessary for the surviving of the society and to avoid the afflictions of the extreme necessity. In case of doubt about the existence of true cardinals, as it happened at the time of the Great Schism, we can assure for certain that the power to elect the pope remains in the Church of God: "In that case it seems that the power descends to the Universal Church, when the electors appointed by the Pope are not existing". (He quotes Cajetan).

7) Msgr. Charles Journet. This theologian is cited by Zins and Mock. The latter points out that the work of Journet enjoys great authority because it received the Apostolic Blessing of Pope Pius XII. This doctor, supported on the doctrine of the great theologians Cajetan and John of St. Thomas, affirms that, in an extraordinary case, the power to elect the pope is transferred to the Church by restitution.

Journet, practically,reaffirms the doctrine of the two great masters that he completely endorses. What he adds is when and why this question came about: "The question of the power to elect the pope became pressing in the XV and in the XVI centuries, because of the controversies about the authority of the Pope and the authority of the Council".

From this fourth criterion, the doctrinal one, we can reach the following conclusions. The Doctors mentioned here, except Dom Grea, agree on this point: that in an extraordinary circumstance like the disappearance of the Electoral College, appointed by ecclesiastical law, the power and the right of a papal election, would pass, by    RESTITUTION, to the Universal Church, to a General and Ecumenical Council.
So, even if we do not consider the crystal clear explanations by Vitoria; who are the rightful members of a general or Ecumenical Council? - THE BISHOPS.

What is the meaning of "to the Universal Church by Restitution"? The word "ECCLESIA", without any addition, may have two meanings:
a) the total Church ("discens" and "docens": faithfuls and hierarchy, lay people and clergy);
b) in a restricted sense it is the hierarchical Church or the Authority. Thus, we say: "The Church teaches, the Church prescribes... " and the previous "consensus" of the "discens" Church is not necessary to keep all the strength and vigor of her commandments. (D.S. 3O74).

To explain in a clearer way, Cajetan himself, who is the author of the expression (and the other Doctors accept it) tries to explain it, as the passing or transference from a superior power or competency of the Authority to the immediately inferior. Without a doubt the hierarchical grade, that is immediately inferior to the Papacy is the Episcopacy. Therefore, to the SEDEVACANTIST EPISCOPAL BODY exclusively corresponds the duty and the right of the papal election in the present circumstamces. It is (relatively) Sovereign to decide on this extremely serious matter.

This is the conclusion about a Suppletory Norm from the Doctrine of the mentioned Doctors, who dealt with this question, and who were stars or first or second magnitude in Catholic Theology.
On the other hand, Dom Grea (who disagrees with them) does not even appear in the Bibliography of outstanding authors, presented by Salaverri at the beginning of his "TRACTATUS DE ECCLESIA CHRISTI".
The result of the four criterion, according to the law (legal, juridical, "praxis" or practical, and doctrinal) is an amazing and harmonical convergence of the same suppletory norm: THE RIGHTFUL ELECTOR BY DIVINE RIGHT, TO ORGANIZE A PAPAL ELECTION, IN THE PRESENT CIRCUMSTANCES, ARE THE FAITHFUL BISHOPS.

About the second question, that is: What is the procedure that must be followed? My opinion is very limited, because the Episcopal College in addition to be the RIGHTFUL ELECTOR, it is SOVEREIGN to plan the specific procedure of the election.

I believe that if the essential is observed, for example, the manner the election, by the ordinary mean of scrutiny or unanimous acclamation with the obtention of 2/3 of the votes plus one; and perhaps something else, the Episcopal College enjoys a wide range of faculties for the secondary matters.

Pius VI, in very difficult circumstances, took his precautions for the foreseen possible case, to avoid the danger of schism or hesitatic on fulfilling this extremely serious duty (that is the essential) of providing to the Church her Visible Head. In a Pontifical Brief on February 11, 1799: "ATTENTIS PECULIARIBUS PRAESENTIBUS ECCLESIAE CIRCUNTANTIIS", Pius VI dispensed some law requirements. When he was a prisonner of Napoleon, he even gave very wide powers to the Cardinals to decide about the very LAW OF THE CONCLAVE, as well as about the other ceremonies, customs and formalities, that are not essential for the electoral action. His successor, Pius VII, did the same. Pius IX as a consequence of the invasion of the Pontifical States, also established a particular legislation, as an alternative for the case when the Ordinary Norms could not be observed.

Leo XIII in his Constitution "PRAEDECESSORIS NOSTRI", renewed the Bull "CONSULTORI" of Pius IX. ("Dictionnaire de la Theologie Catholique, Art. Conclave).

In this matter we cannot be more papist than the Popes. From the study of the mentioned Documents, we can reach the consequence that when the Popes foresaw some disturbing circumstances, they gave very wide powers or faculties, to carry out the modifications (after keeping the essential) that the Electoral College shall determine.

Professor Toms Tello Corraliza
Merida, Spain

LAUS DEO ET MARIAE

 
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